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Copyright: 2012 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors
WELCOME  

Welcome to Edition 207 of Institute Inbrief! Given that an estimated 60 percent of persons who have intellectual disability also experience severe communication deficits, the literature on counselling this client group consistently refers to the importance of using “creative approaches” which allow the client to respond in both verbal and nonverbal ways. In this edition we examine how two creative approaches – sand tray therapy and art therapy – can be used to support counselling clients with intellectual disability.
 
Also in this edition:
  • Latest news and updates
  • Articles and CPD information
  • Social media review
  • Upcoming seminar dates
Enjoy your reading!
 
Editor.
 
 
Join our community:
 
 
 
 
INTOstudies  
 
Bachelor of Counselling
 
Become A Counsellor or Expand On Your Qualifications
With Australia’s Most Cost Effective & Flexible
Bachelor of Counselling
 
AIPC is Australia’s largest and longest established educator of Counsellors. Over the past 22-years we’ve helped over 55,000 people from 27 countries pursue their dream of becoming a professional Counsellor.
 
The Bachelor of Counselling is a careful blend of theory and practical application. Theory is learnt through user-friendly learning materials that have been carefully designed to make your studies as accessible and conducive to learning as possible.
 
You can gain up to a full year’s academic credit (and save up to $8,700.00 with RPL) with a Diploma qualification. And the program is government Fee Help approved. With Fee-Help you can learn now and pay later: the government will finance all or part of your tuition fees, which you only start to repay from $40 per week once your income exceeds $51,309.
 
Here are some facts about the course:
  • Study externally from anywhere in Australia, even overseas.
  • Residential Schools in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane.
  • Save up to $57,000 on your qualification.
  • Start with just 1 subject.
  • Online learning portal with access to all study materials, readings and video lectures.
  • No minimum HSC or OP results required to gain entry.
  • Learn in a friendly, small group environment.
You can learn more here: www.aipc.edu.au/degree
 
Click here to see what students think of the program.
 
 
Bachelor of Psychological Science
 
Earn-While-You-Learn With Australia's
Best Value-for-Money & Flexible
Bachelor of Psychological Science
 
Psychology is one of the most versatile undergraduate courses, leading to many different career opportunities. And now there's a truly flexible way to get your qualification – with internal or external study options. It means working while you study is a realistic alternative.
 
Cost of living pressures and lifestyle choices are evolving the way we learn and Australian Institute of Psychology (AIP) is paving the way through flexible, innovative learning models:
  • Study externally from anywhere in Australia, even overseas.
  • Residential Schools in Melbourne*, Sydney* and Brisbane.
  • Save up to $35,800 on your qualification.
  • Get started with NO MONEY DOWN with FEE-HELP.
  • Start with just 1 subject.
  • Online learning portal with access to all study materials, readings and video lectures.
  • Accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC).
  • No minimum HSC or OP results required to gain entry.
  • Learn in a friendly, small group environment.
*Residential Schools in Melbourne and Sydney are available for CORE subjects only.
 
AIP is a registered Higher Education Provider with the Australian Government, delivering a three-year Bachelor of Psychological Science. The Bachelor of Psychological Science is accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC), the body that sets the standards of training for Psychology education in Australasia.
 
APAC accreditation requirements are uniform across all universities and providers in the country, meaning that Australian Institute of Psychology, whilst a private Higher Education Provider, is required to meet exactly the same high quality standards of training, education and support as any university provider in the country.
 
You can learn more here: www.aip.edu.au/degree
 
 
Diploma of Counselling
 
AIPC provides you with flexible course delivery modes
So YOU set the rules for how and when you learn...
 
AIPC’s accredited and nationally recognised Diploma of Counselling is designed so that you determine the manner and pace you study. You study entirely at your own pace (except of course if you’re receiving a government benefit such as Austudy) and you can start at any time, graduating in only 18-months.
 
Not only can you set the pace you study, you also determine the mode you want to study. You can study externally (at home with phone and email access to our counselling tutors); in-Class; online or any combination… all the time fully supported by our huge national team throughout our 8 Student Support Centres.
 
External learning means you can complete your entire course from the comfort of your home (or office, or overseas, or virtually anywhere). Your course comes complete with fully self-contained, referenced and professionally presented learning materials including 18 individual workbooks and readings. It really is as simple as working through the material and contacting us for support along the way. If you live locally to one of our support centres you can also attend tutorials to provide you with face to face contact if you wish (this option is ideal if you enjoy working more independently or have a busy schedule).
 
In-Class learning is a classroom forum where you learn with other students from a qualified lecturer. Classes are available in most main cities, at flexible times. In-Class is a great way for you to accelerate your learning, interact with other students and stay highly motivated. (This option is particularly suitable if you enjoy learning in the classroom environment with other students).
 
Online learning allows you to complete your learning entirely via your PC. You still receive all the high quality hardcopy resources (so you don’t miss out on anything!), but you’ll access all your learning materials and complete assessments online.
 
Any combination. Of course you don’t have to stick with one learning method throughout your studies. You’re welcome to use whichever method suits your needs and desires at the time. You may choose to complete one workbook in-Class, another online, then externally. Whatever is most convenient!
 
You can learn more here: www.aipc.net.au/course_dippro.php
INTOmentalhealth  
 
Do you have to be happy to live a good life?
 
I have to admit, that despite my own generally positive disposition, the current societal focus on ‘happiness’ and the pursuit of living a happy life pushes my buttons. There seems to be a constant flow of happiness mantras on social media, in books, and via a myriad of other contexts from professional life-coaching to the idea of positive education. Most recently, I came across these two particular quotes on a social media site, to which I quite frankly groaned:
 
Simply replace any negative thoughts with positive ones – and just watch how your life changes.
 
10 Ways to Stay Optimistic: (1) Decide to be happy…
 
Imagine if we, as therapists, conveyed such ideas to our clients? What kind of messages would we be sending, and most importantly, how would our clients perceive their capacity to engage effectively in therapy? How willing would they be to engage with us?
 
Click here to read the full article.
 
 
No Time to Think
 
ONE of the biggest complaints in modern society is being overscheduled, overcommitted and overextended. Ask people at a social gathering how they are and the stock answer is “super busy,” “crazy busy” or “insanely busy.” Nobody is just “fine” anymore.
 
When people aren’t super busy at work, they are crazy busy exercising, entertaining or taking their kids to Chinese lessons. Or maybe they are insanely busy playing fantasy football, tracing their genealogy or churning their own butter.
 
And if there is ever a still moment for reflective thought – say, while waiting in line at the grocery store or sitting in traffic – out comes the mobile device. So it’s worth noting a study published last month in the journal Science, which shows how far people will go to avoid introspection.
 
Click here to read the full article.
 
 
How Acting Out in School Boosts Learning
 
Acting out in school is often a prelude to parents receiving a call from the principal. But, there are ways of acting out that tremendously increase learning – namely acting out as a way of grounding, or making sense of, abstract information.
 
There is a growing body of research showing the value of this sort of acting out. One example is the Moved by Reading intervention for teaching reading comprehension. Using the intervention, children act out the meaning of sentences by moving images on a computer screen. If the child reads, “The farmer drove the tractor to the barn,” then she would move pictures of the farmer to the tractor, and both of them to the barn. This can double reading comprehension.
 
Why is this important? Reading is basic for much of Western-style education. Not only do we read for pleasure, but we read to learn in science, mathematics, history, and so on. Unfortunately, many American children fail to read with good comprehension. For example, in 2011 only 67% of American children read at or above the basic level on the fourth-grade National Assessment of Educational Progress. The situation is even more dire for children learning English as a second language; only 31% of these children were at or above the basic level. We may be a nation of immigrants, but our educational system is failing many of the students who will be core members of society in the near future. Acting out can contribute to improving the outcome.
 
Click here to read the full article.
INTOcounselling  
 
Creative Therapies and Intellectual Disability
 
There is wide agreement among writers on issues of intellectual disability that there isn’t much agreement on the effectiveness of counselling and psychotherapy with clients who have intellectual disability; the state of the art is “controversial” (Prout, Chard, Nowak-Drabik, & Johnson, 2000; Bhaumik, et al, 2011; WWILD, 2012). Prout et al cited historical reviews of Eysenck (1965) and Levitt (1971, both in Prout et al, 2000) which concluded that treatment with psychotherapy yielded no or minimal benefits when compared to untreated individuals.
 
Several years later, the meta-analysis of Smith and Glass (1977/1983) yielded the opposite conclusion, pointing to the general effectiveness of psychotherapy. None of these reviews, however, addressed the specific question of effectiveness with those who have intellectual disability. When such reviews began to be conducted, they consistently showed that psychological treatments were not effective, or at least that the question remained unresolved (Butz, Bowling, & Bliss, 2000; Matson, 1984; Prout & Strohmer, 1998). 
 
The Butz, Bowling, & Bliss (2000) study, for example, noted that, despite the fact that there are now many people with intellectual disability living in communities, there has been a lack of scientific inquiry into the usefulness of outpatient psychological treatments. The following reasons for the lack of research are offered:
  1. Diagnostic overshadowing is believed to be occurring, causing the continuing perception among mental health professionals that having intellectual disability accounts for concomitant emotional symptomatology
  2. The mental health field maintains a long-standing assumption that those with intellectual disability are immune to mental illness
  3. Mental health professionals have viewed those with intellectual disability as lacking the ability to understand therapeutic concepts
  4. Funding agencies for mental health and intellectual disability have become dichotomised from regulatory agencies (Butz, et al, 2000).
Many studies have highlighted that the entire body of research literature on the topic of psychotherapeutic efficacy lacks empirical rigour, with studies often being qualitative and descriptive rather than experimental. Beyond that, a diagnosis of intellectual disability has routinely been used as a criterion of exclusion from any investigation. Thus, as Bhaumik et al point out, the current evidence base is “extremely limited” (2011, p 428), and a degree of inference is drawn from the interventions applicable to the general population with mental health problems. The authors argue that, while that inference-drawing may be acceptable for those with mild disability, it is correspondingly less so as the degree of ability (and concomitant communication skill) decreases. 
 
Moreover, with a few exceptions, the investigations have been of poor quality because of inadequate numbers of participants, poor study design, lack of a control group, and/or differing outcome measures. Thus, few meaningful conclusions can be drawn (Bhaumik, et al, 2011). The much-cited study by Prout et al (2000) attempted a large systematic review of a wide range of studies examining the effectiveness of psychotherapy with people who have intellectual disability. They found that a meta-analysis was not possible because, due to the (low-calibre) nature of the studies, too many would have been eliminated, resulting in the analysis being done with only a small number of studies. Ultimately, the researchers were able to identify about 90 studies published between 1968 and 1998 which in some way described results of therapeutic interventions with subjects who had intellectual disability. The studies ranged widely from case studies to experimental designs with control groups. Each study was rated in terms of outcome and general effectiveness by a panel of experts in therapeutic interventions. Overall, the results indicated that psychological treatments with individuals who have intellectual disability yield moderate change and are moderately effective. 
 
In a similar vein to the observations by the Bhaumik investigation, the expert panel on the Prout et al study reported generally having the impression that:
  • The literature is dominated by case studies and single-subject designs
  • Few traditional controlled-comparison studies or clinical trials have been undertaken
  • Interventions have tended to be described vaguely
  • Few of the studies used treatment manuals or protocols to guide the therapists in the treatment
  • Treatment integrity procedures to assess adherence were not often included, resulting in uncertainty as to whether interventions alleged to be from a given theoretical orientation actually followed theory-based strategies.
  • Outcome data were either vaguely described or omitted altogether
  • Conclusions often appeared to be based on weak data
Despite these significant limitations, the expert reviewers did generally feel that the body of literature supported the use of therapeutic interventions with people who have intellectual disability (Prout et al, 2000).
 
Given that an estimated 60 percent of persons who have intellectual disability also experience severe communication deficits (AIHW, 2008), the literature on counselling this client group consistently refers to the importance of using “creative approaches” (WWILD, 2012, p 60) which allow the client to respond in both verbal and nonverbal ways.  
 
In this article, we examine how two of these creative approaches – sand tray therapy and art therapy – can be used to support counselling clients with intellectual disability.
 
Sand tray therapy
 
How the therapy works
 
In the first half of the last century, British paediatrician and child psychiatrist Margaret Lowenfeld utilised sand and water in combination with small toys to help children express “the inexpressible” after reading H.G. Wells’ observation that his two sons would work out family problems playing on the floor with miniature figures (Zhou, 2009). Lowenfeld added miniatures to the shelves of her therapy rooms, and the first child who came to use them took the figurines over to the sandbox, playing with them there. Thus, it was a child who “invented” what Lowenfeld came to call “The World Technique” (Zhou, 2009). In the 1950s, Jungian analyst Dora Kalff (Zhou, 2009) extended the use of the sand tray to adults, realising that the technique allowed not only the expression of fears and anger in children, but also processes of transcendence and individuation (in adults) which she had been studying with Jung. She called it “sandplay” (Zhou, 2009).
 
Sandplay has been defined as a psychotherapeutic technique which invites clients to arrange miniature figures in a sandbox or sandtray to create a “sandworld” corresponding to various dimensions of their social reality (Dale & Wagner, 2003). It involves the use of one or two sandtrays and any number of small objects or figures from categories including: people, animals, buildings, vehicles, vegetation and other natural objects, and symbolic objects. Using sand and the miniatures gives clients a symbolic way of expressing their feelings and their worldview. Because it does not depend heavily on communicative proficiency, it can be used with a wide range of people with varying verbal and cognitive abilities. It provides a safe way to explore the unconscious, along with overwhelming feelings and life situations. Because it allows the deeper aspects of the psyche to be worked with naturally and in a non-threatening environment, it is highly effective in reducing the emotional causes of difficult behaviours. Sandplay thus helps to strengthen a client’s connection between the inner and outer worlds (Campbell, 2004; WWILD, 2012; Zhou, 2009).
 
It commonly consists of two central stages, the first involving the construction of the sand picture. Here the perceived need for the counselling session and the specific intentions of the therapist guide the instructions given to the client. Generally, the person is invited to create a sand picture using any of the therapist’s miniatures. While there can be many therapeutic orientations with varying means of interpreting what the client creates, the sandplay pictures are generally considered to be a projection of the child’s internal subjective world and a representation of his or her worldview (Dale & Wagner, 2003). Because they give the client the opportunity to express negative feelings and unconscious memories which impact on their choices, bringing these to consciousness can be the first stage of disempowering them and allowing their release (Campbell, 2004).
 
The second stage involves sharing a story or narrative about the created sand picture. Here clients can clarify personal meanings and integrate new feelings and insights that may have emerged through the creation of the sand picture. While the issue of whether or not to interpret the scene is strongly debated, many experts on sand play argue that the therapist’s role is to sit quietly beside the client while the picture is created, sketching what is created (or taking photographs) and making notes on any utterances the client makes while doing it. The proponents of this method claim that, in this way, the client is safe and free to explore his/her own meanings, leading naturally to the person’s inbuilt movement toward wholeness (Campbell, 2004; WWILD, 2012).
 
What the research says
 
Although sandplay is often presented as a robust assessment and treatment tool, there is little research to show with scientific rigour whether the approach is effective with the population in general, let alone with the much smaller group of those with intellectual disability (Zinni, 1997). Campbell (2004) reviews the use of the technique with various subpopulations, such as those with language and communication difficulties, attention deficits, the culturally different, or those who have experienced trauma. Because of its non-verbal nature, the sandplay process is likely to be useful with clients who have language and communication or cognitive deficits (clients with intellectual disability are probably most similar of those she described to this group). Campbell cites a study which demonstrated the ability of sandplay to improve concentration and peer relations in speech- and language-disordered clients (Carey, 1990, in Campbell, 2004). Those with attention deficits are said to be able to achieve greater kinaesthetic involvement with sand than with mere “talk therapy”, and so were shown to achieve a more concentrated focus, with the sand tray minimising distraction and promoting a focusing effect (Carey, 1990 and Vinturella & James, 1987: both in Campbell, 2004).
 
Abuse experiences are particularly tough for clients to acknowledge, let alone verbalise; thus, sandplay is seen to be highly appropriate for abused individuals, a population which includes most clients with intellectual disability. To them it offers a safe place to express through play and symbolic activity the complex emotions related to the abuse (Grubbs, 1994, in Campbell, 2004). One of the few studies conducted in this area used sandplay therapy as an assessment tool with 52 abused and non-abused children. The results showed significant differences in the sandtray constructions between the abused and the non-abused subjects. The differences centred on the content, theme, and approach, reflecting the emotional distress of the abuse (Zinni, 1997).
 
Because the fields of counselling and psychology consider evidence-based or empirically-supported therapies to be the “gold standard”, limitations on potential scientific research will continue to hamper the demonstration of effectiveness. Rather, it seems for the moment, clinicians using sandplay will have to be content with the wealth of case studies accumulating, which preclude (comparative) conclusions regarding technique effectiveness.
How to best use this therapy with clients who have intellectual disability
 
In selecting figures for the sandtray, clients normally can choose items to represent themselves. Where some of the client group with intellectual disability have stalled is in picking figurines to represent others in their lives. The problem, according to sandtray therapists, is the tendency of such clients to view things in a concrete, literal way. Therapists can help clients with disability compensate for this tendency by engaging them in conversations about some of the person’s more abstract qualities, such as whether the person is, say, affectionate and cuddly (the client could choose a teddy bear to represent them) or whether the person criticises and “growls” at them a lot (the client could choose a mean-looking dog). The therapist does not choose the object or ascribe their own associations to, say, a family member the client is trying to represent. Rather, the therapist supports the client to understand the person and the client’s relationship to them in less literal, more symbolic terms. When sandplay figurines take on symbolic meaning, the client is connecting to the unconscious, which supports emotional healing and personal development (WWILD, 2012).
 
Potential enhancements
 
As noted above, sandtray therapy works in well as an adjunct to many other therapies, although some strong proponents of sandtray therapy might prefer to think of the sandtray work as the main therapy and other approaches as the supplementary ones!
 
Art therapy
 
How the therapy works
 
Art therapy is the therapeutic use of art making, within a professional relationship, by people who experience illness, trauma, or life challenges. It is an established mental health profession and form of expressive therapy that combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process to enhance the physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing of people of all ages. Some expressive therapies involve the performing arts for expressive purposes, but art therapy generally utilises drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, and other forms of visual art expression. For this reason art therapists are trained to recognise the nonverbal symbols and metaphors that are communicated within the creative process: symbols and metaphors which might be difficult to express in words or in other modalities.
 
Most definitions of art therapy are said to fall into one of two chief categories. The first involves a belief in the natural healing power of art. This view embraces the idea that the process of making art is therapeutic; this process is sometimes referred to as art as therapy. Art making is seen as an opportunity to be imaginative, genuine, and spontaneous in one’s self-expression, an experience that, over time, can lead to the healing of emotional wounds, transformation, and personal fulfilment.
 
The second definition of art therapy is based on the notion that art is a means of symbolic communication. This approach, often referred to as art psychotherapy, focuses on the products – drawings, paintings, and other art expressions – as vital communications about issues, emotions, and conflicts. The art image becomes significant in enhancing verbal exchange between the client and the therapist and in achieving insight and growth in cognitive abilities; resolving conflicts; solving problems; and formulating new perceptions that in turn lead to positive changes, growth, and healing.
 
In practice, art as therapy and art psychotherapy are used together, as both the idea that art making can be a healing process and that art products communicate information relevant to therapy are important. Both help people to increase their capacity to cope with challenges, stress, and traumatic experiences. Art therapists employ this therapy with a wide range of populations in many clinical settings. It can be found in non-clinical settings as well, such as in art studios and workshops that focus on creativity development. Individuals of all ages, couples, families, groups, and communities have benefitted from art therapy services (International Art Therapy Organisation, 2010; WWILD, 2012).
 
What the research says
 
There is a growing body of research showing art therapy to be an efficacious intervention capable of expanding the psychotherapeutic possibilities for client groups who are less able to engage with typical talk therapies. Some of the outcomes show that art therapy enables a connection to and processing of feeling states which reach beyond verbal communication. Dr Andrea Gilroy (2007) offers a comprehensive review of all significant research into the efficacy of art therapy. Here is a partial list from her work summarising study outcomes on the client populations most relevant to those with intellectual disability.
 
Art therapy and intellectual disabilities/learning difficulties
 
Long-term group and individual studies are shown to improve behaviour difficulties and decrease feelings of helplessness with these client groups. Some research has shown an improved capacity for symbol formation and ability to complete developmental tasks (Fox, 1998; Kuczaj, 1998; Mackenzie, 2000; Stack, 1998; Reese, 1995: in Gilroy, 2007).
 
Art therapy and abuse and trauma
 
Some short-term group and individual art therapy studies with abused and traumatised clients have shown a decrease in anxiety, depression, and symptoms of PTSD and improvements in self-esteem (Brooke, 1995; McClelland, 1993; Morgan & Johnson, 1995; Schaverien, 1992 and 1998: in Gilroy, 2007).
 
Art therapy and addictions
 
More tolerated by this client group than verbal approaches, art therapy studies with addicts have shown it to be effective in helping clients acknowledge their addictions, facilitate change, and reduce isolation (Dickman, 1996; Francis, 2003; Springham, 1999: in Gilroy, 2007).
 
Art therapy and depression
 
Participants in group art therapy showed increased self-esteem and improved relationships (Ponteri, 2001, in Gilroy, 2007), which decreases depression.
 
Art therapy and personality disorders
 
Studies of this group showed that highly charged emotional experiences can lose some of their charge through exposure to art therapy, thereby reducing destructive tendencies (Dudley, 2004; Greenwood, 2000; Spring, 2001).
 
Art therapy and psychotic disorders
 
Outcome studies demonstrate increased ability to enter and maintain relationships, think symbolically, and develop mature defences. There has been a concomitant reduced need to attend mental health services. Art therapy engages clients in psychological interventions (Killick, 1991, 1995, 1997, 2000; Saotome, 1998; Wood, 1997 and 1999: in Gilroy, 2007).
 
How to best use this therapy with clients who have intellectual disability
 
Art therapy for clients with intellectual disability has been evolving over the last quarter century. When therapists started using it with this client group, they tended to focus on the therapeutic value of making art (the first category of art therapy definition, above), but it is now used as a direct therapy to understand emotions, relationships, and the client’s interpretation of their experiences (the second definition, above). It can help make abstract concepts more concrete through the use of pictures. For those with poor verbal ability or communication deficits, it provides a useful, less threatening form of therapy, allowing – as does narrative therapy – the externalisation of problems, feelings, and emotions. This permits both client and therapist to examine and gain insight into the experience the client is having (WWILD, 2012).
 
Potential enhancements
 
As with sand tray therapy, some might declare that art therapy is the enhancement: no others need apply. Certainly, it works in well with therapies which are more verbally-oriented, such as narrative therapy or traditional psychotherapy. 
 
© 2014 Mental Health Academy
 
This article was adapted from Mental Health Academy’s “Counselling Clients with Intellectual Disability: A Look at What Works” CPD course. Click here to learn more and subscribe to this course.
 
References:
 
Bhaumik, S., Gangadharan, S., Hiremath, A., & Russell, P.S.S. (2011). Psychological treatments in intellectual disability: The challenges of building a good evidence base. British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011, 198, 428-430. Doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.085084.
 
Butz, M.R., Bowling, J.B., & Bliss, C.A. (2000). Psychotherapy with the mentally retarded: A review of the literature and its implication. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 31, 42-47.
 
Campbell, M.A. (2004). Value of Sandplay as a therapeutic tool for school guidance counsellors. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling (14(2): 211-232.
 
Dale, M., & Wagner, W. (2003). Sandplay: An investigation into a child’s meaning system via the self-confrontation method for children. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 16, 17-36.
 
Eysenck 1965
 
Gilroy, A. (2007). Art therapy, research, and evidence-based practice. London: Sage Publications, Ltd. ISBN (paperback): 9780761941149.
 
International Art Therapy Organization (IATO). (2010).What is art therapy? International Art Therapy Organization. Retrieved on 13 January, 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
Matson, J.L. (1984). Psychotherapy with persons who are mentally retarded. Mental Retardation, 22, 170-175.
 
Prout, H.T. & Strohmer, D.C. (1998). Issues in mental health counseling with persons with mental retardation. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20, 112-120.
 
Prout, H.T., Chard, K.M., Nowak-Drabik, K.M., Johnson, D.M. (2000). Determining the effectiveness of psychotherapy with persons with mental retardation: The need to move toward empirically based research. NADD Bulletin: 2000, 3 (6). Retrieved on 7 January, 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
Smith, M.L. & Glass, G.V. (1977/1983). Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies. American Psychologist. 32: 752-760. Accessed in Citation Classic, No 13, 28 March, 1983. Retrieved on 14 Jan., 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
WWILD. (2012). How to hear me: A resource kit for counsellors and other professionals working with people with intellectual disabilities. WWILD Sexual Violence Prevention Association Inc: Disability Training Program. Department of Justice and Attorney General Building Capacity for Victims of Crime Services Funding Program. Retrieved on 3 December, 2013, from: hyperlink.
 
Zhou, D. (2009). A review of sand play therapy. International Journal of Psychological Studies; 2009, 1 (2), 69-72.
 
Zinni, R. (1997). Differential aspects of sandplay with 10- and 11-year-old children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21, 657-668.
 
Course information:
 
 
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INTObookstore  
 
The Institute has a list of recommended textbooks and DVDs that can add great value to your learning journey - and the good news is that you can purchase them very easily. The AIPC bookstore will give you discounted prices, an easy ordering method and quality guarantee!
 
This fortnight's feature is...
 
Name: Family Therapy: Concepts and Methods, 10th edition
Author: Nichols, Michael
AIPC Code: NICHOLS
AIPC Price: $83.70 (RRP $99.75)
ISBN: 978-020-591-1912
 
Real-life case material and a comprehensive look at all major schools and developments in family therapy make this the text of choice for family therapy courses across the country.
 
To order this book, contact your Student Support Centre or the AIPC Head Office (1800 657 667).
INTOarticles  
 
A Case Study Using CBT
 
Jocelyn works as a Human Resources Manager for a large international organisation. She is becoming more and more stressed at work as the company is constantly changing and evolving. It is a requirement of her job that she keeps up with this change by implementing new strategies as well as ensuring focus is kept on her main role of headhunting new employees.
 
She finds that she is working twelve-hour days, six days a week and doesn’t have time for her friends and family. She has started yelling at staff members when they ask her questions and when making small mistakes in their work. Concerned about her stress levels, Jocelyn decided to attend a counselling session.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
 
Psychotherapy vs. CBT for Chronic Pain
 
Pain can have a profound social and psychological impact on those who suffer from it, and also those who care for them. What can you as a counsellor, psychotherapist, or psychologist do for such a client? While “talk therapy” admittedly does not always have the same quick response time as, say, painkilling medication, it can be hugely effective in helping the chronic pain client to come to a place of acceptance, opening the door to the establishing of a new life: one which accommodates the changes that have occurred.
 
We look at both psychotherapy and cognitive therapy, including under the latter’s umbrella the myriad techniques for working with one’s mind and attention to change the relationship with pain.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
More articles: www.aipc.net.au/articles
INTOdevelopment  
 
Mental Health Academy – First to Knowledge in Mental Health
 
Get unlimited access to over 50 hours of CPD video workshops and over 100 specialist courses, for just $39/month or $349/year. Plus FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the 10-hour Psychological First Aid program ($595.00 value).
 
We want you to experience unlimited, unrestricted access to the largest repository of professional development programs available anywhere in the country.
 
When you join our Premium Level membership, you’ll get all-inclusive access to over 50 hours of video workshops (presented by leading mental health experts) on-demand, 24/7.
 
You’ll also get access to over 100 specialist courses exploring a huge range of topics, including counselling interventions, communications skills, conflict, child development, mental health disorders, stress and trauma, relationships, ethics, reflective practice, plus much more. 
 
You’ll also get FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the Psychological First Aid course ($595.00 value). The PFA course a high quality 10-hour program developed by Mental Health Academy in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.
 
Benefits of becoming a premium member:
  • FREE and exclusive PFA course ($595.00 value)
  • Over 100 specialist courses to choose from
  • Over 50 hours of video learning on-demand
  • CPD endorsed by leading industry associations
  • Videos presented by international experts
  • New programs released every month
  • Huge range of topics and modalities
  • Online, 24/7 access
Some upcoming programs:
  • Recognising Spiritual Emergence
  • Healing Spiritual Emergencies
  • Spiritual Emergence: Case Studies
  • Psychoeducation for Clients
  • Counselling the Gender-Diverse Client
Learn more and join today: www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium
INTOconnection  
 
Have you visited Counselling Connection yet? There are over 650 interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
 
A dilemma involving inner child therapy work
 
A counsellor has been working with a client over a period of 9 months assisting with inner child therapy work. During the period, the client also talks about her relationship issues, sexuality as well as a relationship with another person. The counsellor, who also happens to be in a same sex relationship and going through her own separation issues, advises the client she will help counsel her through separating from her husband if the client decides she is lesbian. When the counsellor discovers the ‘other person’ the client is seeing is a male, the counsellor immediately advises the client to stop seeing him and have her husband and herself, come for marriage counselling.
 
Do you think the counsellor should have referred the client or continued the extensive progress that had been made during the course of the sessions? If the counsellor decided to refer on, when would have been the most appropriate time to do that? Also please explain your position on counselling couples and each individual partner separately?
 
Click here to access this post.
 
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INTOtwitter  
 
Follow us on Twitter and get the latest and greatest in counselling news. To follow, visit https://twitter.com/counsellingnews and click "Follow".
 
Featured Tweets
 
Mindfulness practice: Problems and solutions: https://bit.ly/1l8miIg
 
A resource kit for counsellors and other professionals working with people with intellectual disability: https://bit.ly/1rLN0xO
 
Challenges of Families with a Parent Working Away from Home Base: https://bit.ly/1qcLMak
 
How To Stay Positive In Challenging Times (5 Steps And A Meditation): https://bit.ly/1pyenFi
 
Poor Sleep Can Lead to False Memories: https://bit.ly/1k4Jmwp
 
Win-Win Choices Lead to Dueling Brain Regions: https://bit.ly/1qHVNRH
 
A Guide to Helping the Suicide-Bereaved: https://bit.ly/1akC3qo  
 
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Follower Count: 6,480
INTOquotes  
 
"Success is going from failure to failure without losing your enthusiasm."
 
~ Winston Churchill
INTOseminars  
 
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
 
Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.
 
Below are upcoming seminars available for the remainder of 2014.
 
Click here to view all seminar dates online.
 
To register for a seminar, please contact your Student Support Centre.
 
BRISBANE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 27-28/09, 29-30/11
Communication Skills I: 23/08, 18/10, 14/12
Communication Skills II: 20/09, 15/11
Counselling Therapies I: 06-07/09, 29-30/11
Counselling Therapies II: 02-03/08, 08-09/11
Legal & Ethical Framework: 10/08, 02/11
Family Therapy: 14/09, 13/12
Case Management: 22-23/11
 
GOLD COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 24-25/10, 05-06/12
Communication Skills I: 16/08, 15/11
Communication Skills II: 20/09, 12/12
Counselling Therapies I: 26-27/09
Counselling Therapies II: 21-22/11
Legal & Ethical Framework: 28/11
Family Therapy: 15/08
Case Management: 17-18/10
 
SUNSHINE COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 27-28/09
Communication Skills I: 08/11
Communication Skills II: 09/11
Counselling Therapies I: 25-26/10
Counselling Therapies II: 30-31/08
Legal & Ethical Framework: 09/08
Family Therapy: 11/10
Case Management: 22/11
 
MELBOURNE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 30-31/08, 20-21/09, 25-26/10, 15-16/11, 06-07/12
Communication Skills I: 06/09, 11/10, 22/11, 13/12
Communication Skills II: 01/08, 07/09, 12/10, 23/11, 14/12
Counselling Therapies I: 02-03/08, 13-14/09, 18-19/10, 29-30/11
Counselling Therapies II: 09-10/08, 20-21/09, 25-26/10, 06-07/12
Legal & Ethical Framework: 16/08, 27/09, 01/11, 05/12
Family Therapy: 17/08, 28/09, 02/11, 12/12
Case Management: 23-24/08, 04-05/10, 08-09/11
 
DARWIN (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 18/10
Communication Skills I: 13/09, 06/12
Communication Skills II: 13/09, 06/12
Counselling Therapies I: 02/08, 13/12
Counselling Therapies II: 25/09
Legal & Ethical Framework: 29/11
Family Therapy: 27/09
Case Management: 15/11
 
ADELAIDE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 09-10/08, 18-19/10, 13-14/12
Communication Skills I: 06/09, 08/11
Communication Skills II: 07/09, 09/11
Counselling Therapies I: 30-31/08, 22-23/11
Counselling Therapies II: 13-14/09, 06-07/12
Legal & Ethical Framework: 23/08, 15/11
Family Therapy: 24/08, 16/11
Case Management: 20-21/09, 29-30/11
 
SYDNEY (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 07-08/08, 29-30/08, 22-23/09, 09-10/10, 03-04/11, 27-28/11, 15-16/12
Communication Skills I: 11/08, 29/09, 06/11, 18/12
Communication Skills II: 12/08, 30/09, 07/11, 19/12
Counselling Therapies I: 22-23/08, 07-08/10, 11-12/12
Counselling Therapies II: 04-05/08, 24-25/09, 20-21/11
Legal & Ethical Framework: 02/10, 03/12
Family Therapy: 31/07, 03/10, 04/12
Case Management: 01-02/08, 05-06/12
 
LAUNCESTON (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 19/09, 05/12
Communication Skills I: 15/08, 21/11
Communication Skills II: 15/08, 21/11
Counselling Therapies I: 31/10
Counselling Therapies II: 01/08, 28/11
Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/11
Family Therapy: 05/09
Case Management: 12/12
 
HOBART (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 19/10
Communication Skills I: 14/09, 07/12
Communication Skills II: 14/09, 07/12
Counselling Therapies I: 03/08, 14/12
Counselling Therapies II: 26/10
Legal & Ethical Framework: 30/11
Family Therapy: 09/11
Case Management: 24/08
 
PERTH (9.00am – 5.00pm)
 
The Counselling Process: 02-03/08, 06-07/09, 04-05/10, 15-16/12
Communication Skills I: 13/09, 22/11
Communication Skills II: 14/09, 23/11
Counselling Therapies I: 09-10/08, 11-12/10, 06-07/12
Counselling Therapies II: 18-19/10, 13-14/12
Legal & Ethical Framework: 16/08, 25/10
Family Therapy: 23/08, 01/11
Case Management: 30-31/08, 08-09/11
 
 
Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.
 
 
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