Welcome to Edition 217 of Institute Inbrief! It’s our first edition of the year – and 2015 marks the 10th anniversary of Institute Inbrief!! We’re very excited to share great articles, news and resources with you throughout the year, and hope your 2015 has kicked-off on a very positive note.
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) has been defined as a time-limited, dynamically-informed psychotherapy which aims to alleviate clients’ suffering while improving their interpersonal functioning. It is concerned with the interpersonal context: the relational factors that predispose, precipitate, and perpetuate the client’s distress. In this edition’s featured article we explore IPT’s history and theoretical background.
Also in this edition:
- Latest news and updates
- Articles and CPD information
- Wellness tips
- Social media review
- Upcoming seminar dates
Enjoy your reading!
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Bachelor of Counselling and Psychology
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SEMESTER 1, 2015 INTAKE: CLOSING SOON
Our 2015 Semester 1 intake is now open for:
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Imagine Being Passionate About Your Work
And Assisting People Every Day Lead Better Lives
It’s rare these days to hear people talk about their work with true passion. You hear so many stories of people working to pay the bills; putting up with imperfect situations; and compromising on their true desires.
That’s why it’s always so refreshing to hear regular stories from graduates living their dream to be a Counsellor. They’re always so full of energy, enthusiasm and passion. There’s no doubt that counselling is one of the most personally rewarding and enriching professions.
Just imagine someone comes to you for assistance. They’re emotionally paralysed by events in their life. They can’t even see a future for themselves. They can only focus on their pain and grief. The despair is so acute it pervades their entire life. Their relationship is breaking down and heading towards a divorce. They can’t focus on work and are getting in trouble with their boss. They feel they should be able to handle their problems alone, but know they can’t. It makes them feel helpless, worthless. Their self-esteem has never been lower. They’re caught in a cycle of destruction and pain.
Now imagine you have the knowledge and skills to help this person overcome their challenges. You assist to relieve their intense emotional pain. You give them hope for the future. You assist to rebuild their self-esteem and lead a satisfying, empowered life.
As a Counsellor you can experience these personal victories every day. And it’s truly enriching. There is nothing more fulfilling than helping another person overcome seemingly impossible obstacles.
Confronting loneliness in an age of constant connection
In the 21st century, we have more ways to communicate and get information than ever before. News headlines and celebrity gossip reach millions of people in seconds on Twitter. We share our lives with friends and family on Facebook, post our pictures on Instagram, look for jobs on LinkedIn and share our passions on blogs and other social media outlets. When we want to talk to loved ones in far-flung locales, we no longer need to limit ourselves to the telephone — not when voice and video are just a Skype call away. But with so many ways to connect, why do we often feel so alone instead?
Building individual resilience to improve workplace wellbeing and work outcomes
Since the industrial revolution, the main concern of business has been to organise work to maximise productivity and minimise costs. In Australia, we have traditionally focused on improving processes, methods and systems, rather than on developing people. Our managers are also commonly criticised as being selected on their technical rather than their people management skills. In addition, we now experience greater workplace pressures such as ongoing organisational change, work intensification and greater job insecurity. There is mounting evidence that these changes in work environment are having substantial adverse effects on occupational health and safety (Quinlan & Bohle, 2009). Combined with poor people management skills, managers are ill-equipped to deal with this new workplace environment.
Are we expecting too much from our managers? Are we trying to run 21st century businesses with 20th century workplace practices and programs? Should we instead be expecting a greater level of resilience from everyone in order to run a successful 21st century business?
Interpersonal Therapy: History and Theoretical Background
Interpersonal psychotherapy has been defined as a time-limited, dynamically-informed psychotherapy which aims to alleviate clients’ suffering while improving their interpersonal functioning. It is concerned with the interpersonal context: the relational factors that predispose, precipitate, and perpetuate the client’s distress. It is widely, but not exclusively, used to treat mood disorders. Rather than examine internal cognitions, as the other empirically-based intervention for mood disorders – Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy – does, IPT focuses specifically on interpersonal relationships, with the goal of assisting clients to either improve their relationships or else change their expectations about them. Moreover, IPT helps clients to build up their social supports so that they can manage themselves better through times of interpersonal distress (Stuart, 2006; Robertson, Rushton, & Wurm, 2008).
The evolutionary path: From control intervention to therapy in its own right
Most psychotherapies begin with a theory and grow in prominence and popularity as the theory attracts followers and begins to show results. IPT developed in the opposite direction, appearing on the scene first as a control treatment for studies examining the efficacy of antidepressant medications. Thus until recently nearly all practitioners of IPT were researchers (Markowitz & Weissman, 2004)! But let us take it from the beginning.
Psychopharmacological research circa 1970
From the early 1970s, American psychiatry became interested in evidence-based medicine, coming to worship at the feet of the RCT (randomised, controlled trial). Researchers and clinicians had observed that most genres of psychotherapy seemed to work (eventually) with depression; the field was simultaneously experiencing the advent of tricyclic antidepressant medications. Thus it was deemed necessary to test the efficacy of these medications against established psychological therapies (Robertson et al, 2008).
Factoring in another reality, researchers knew that many clients treated with the then-available antidepressants relapsed after the medication was withdrawn, but what was not clear was how long the psychopharmacologic treatment should continue in order to avoid relapse. Beyond that, although psychodynamic psychotherapy was generally prescribed for both acute and maintenance phases of depression, there was little data to demonstrate its efficacy in general; there was even less evidence addressing the role of psychotherapy in preventing relapse.
At this time behavioural treatments comprised the chief psychotherapy studies. Several large-scale psychodynamic studies had been published, but unfortunately they failed to meet then-current diagnostic criteria for depression; they also did not have standardised outcome measures. Moreover, they were limited in scope and sample size. The movement to generate standardised, manualised psychotherapeutic treatments gathered momentum; researchers and clinicians both desired treatments for depression which could be tested and reliably replicated, such as Beck’s CBT (International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy [isIPT], 2014).
The need for standardised, manualised, shorter psychotherapy
There was a problem, though. Sixteen weeks seemed about right to test whether the antidepressant was having an effect, but the typical psychodynamic psychotherapy that would be prescribed along with it would only be starting to gain traction during that time. Thus, with the goal of standardising what seemed to make up the components of good psychotherapy, Gerald Klerman, Myrna Weissman, and colleagues of Yale University came up with a briefer treatment which integrated what was believed to be the essence of medical psychotherapy. From these elements, they constructed a treatment program that would fit nicely within the confines of a treatment trial.
With the additional observation that depression invariably affected not only the mood of the client, but also his or her communication and through that, relationships in social and work spheres – the marital, family, friend, work-based, and community interactions – it became clear that interpersonal relationships should be the focus of the new therapy. Thus IPT was born: a therapy based upon academic rather than clinical considerations (Robertson et al, 2008).
IPT debuted in a large, multi-site study of medication and psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in mixed-age adults. The study, the United States National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Research Program, was a seminal investigation because of its varied study sites, randomised-controlled clinical design, and large sample size (Elkin, Shea, Watkins et al, 1989). Researchers’ interest in IPT was piqued with the demonstrated efficacy of IPT in such an important study (Hinrichsen, 2008). The IPT treatment manual, Interpersonal Psychotherapy of Depression (Klerman, Weissman, Rounsaville, & Chevron, 1984) became the “bible” and chief training resource for IPT researchers and clinicians. In 1993, New Applications of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (Klerman & Weissman, 1993) was published. It described then-current research developments and pointed to new uses for IPT.
The 1990’s were about expansion beyond IPT’s original focus on acute treatment of depression for younger and middle-aged adults to different age groups, presenting issues, formats, and specific clinical applications. In 2007 the “must-have” IPT book list expanded to include the Clinician’s Quick Guide to Interpersonal Psychotherapy; it is a concise statement of how to conduct IPT and supporting research (Weissman et al, 2007). The reader may also note in the research section that the study sites are no longer merely US- or British-based, with studies coming to being conducted in South Africa, Europe, New Zealand, and of course Australia. There is now an International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy (Hinrichsen, 2008).
The supporting theories
That IPT is not developed in the traditional manner of theory leading to practice does not mean that it does not have solid theoretical foundations. Specifically, IPT is supported by three theoretical pillars: attachment theory, communication theory, and social theory. The most important of the three is probably attachment theory.
Proposed by John Bowlby, attachment theory describes the manner in which individuals form, maintain, and end relationships. Human beings, said Bowlby, have an innate tendency to seek attachments; the quest for them contributes not only to individual satisfaction, but to the survival of the species. Attachment forms the basis for the life-long patterns of interpersonal behaviour which lead an individual to seek care and reassurance in a particular way. Attachments lead to reciprocal, personal, social bonds with significant others, and because they generate experiences of warmth, nurturance, and protection, they also decrease the need for vigilance and rigid muscle tone (indicating hyper-alertness for defence).
Recognising the intense human emotions generated by attachments, Bowlby noted that the desire to be loved and cared for is integral to human nature. This, he claimed, is true not only throughout adult life, but much earlier as well. The expression of such desires is, in fact, so central to human growth, development, and happiness that attachment behaviours are to be expected in every adult, especially in times of sickness or calamity. Human beings of all ages are most happy, effective, and competent when they have the confidence that one or more trusted persons in their lives will be available for help in times of trouble.
Understandably, proponents of attachment theory recognise an individual’s vulnerability to depression if: (a) attachments do not develop early in life and/or (b) attachment bonds are disrupted, say through death, divorce, or abandonment. The distress associated with disruptions in attachments may be due to problems within the specific relationship, but is also heightened when an individual’s social support network is not able to sustain him or her during the loss, conflict, or transition. Insecurely attached individuals are more likely to become distressed than securely attached people during interpersonal conflicts, after the loss of a relationship, or following role transitions, both because they are less secure in their primary attachments and because they have poor social support networks.
These problem areas for interpersonal relating – interpersonal disputes, grief/loss, and role transitions, along with the ongoing issue of what is called “interpersonal sensitivity” (a general deficit in interpersonal skills) – form the basis for determining the direction of the work in interpersonal therapy (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2014; Stuart, 2006; Linton, n.d.). IPT’s second pillar, communication theory, is about how individuals express their attachment needs.
While some psychotherapies may try to change an insecurely attached individual’s basic attachment style, IPT works with that as a given. IPT focuses, rather, on the ways the client communicates attachment needs, and on how the person can build a more supportive social support network. Comparing these two foundational pillars of IPT, we could say that attachment theory is linked to the broad, or macro-context of a person. Communication theory, in its quest to describe how individuals communicate their attachment needs to significant others, informs individual relationships on a micro-level. “Attachment,” notes Stuart, “is the template on which specific communication occurs” (Stuart, 2006, p 544).
Like attachment theory, however, communication theory deals in aspects of interpersonal relationships that are below the level of conscious awareness, and thus sometimes difficult to identify. Kiesler explains that IPT clients often elicit negative or unsupportive responses from others unintentionally. This occurs because those who have maladaptive attachment styles engage in specific communications which bring forth responses that do not meet their attachment needs effectively. When the poorly-attached person then reacts to the non-need-meeting response, it often escalates tensions, deepening the cycle and preventing those needs ever being met (Kiesler, 1979).
The final pillar of IPT’s support foundation focuses on the role that interpersonal factors have in creating maladaptive responses to life events which then generate depression and/or anxiety. Factors such as loss or disrupted or poor social support create the social milieu in which a person develops interpersonal relationships, which in turn strongly influences how a person copes with interpersonal stress. Social theory emphasises that it is the current environment which is crucial. Thus poor social support is seen to be causal in the generating of psychological distress (Stuart, 2006).
We can hold up the sharp contrast between this supporting social theory of IPT and psychoanalytic theory. The latter is based on two chief interrelated principles: psychic determinism – the theory that all mental processes are not spontaneous but are determined by unconscious or pre-existing mental complexes (Wikipedia, 2014) – and the notion that unconscious mental processes are a primary driver of conscious thoughts and behaviours. The social theory of IPT involves neither of these, maintaining as fundamental the notion that it is current interpersonal stressors, not psychic determinism or unconscious processes, which create psychological dysfunction (Stuart, 2006).
© 2015 Mental Health Academy
This article was adapted from the upcoming Mental Health Academy CPD course “Basics of Interpersonal Therapy”. Click here to learn more about MHA.
Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., Imber, S. D., Sotsky, S. M., Collins, J. F., et al. (1989). National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program: General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry; 1989, 46: 971–982.
Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. (2014). Interpersonal therapy. Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders: Advameg., Inc. Retrieved on 18 November, 2014, from: hyperlink.
Hinrichsen, G.A. (2008). Interpersonal psychotherapy for late-life depression: current status and new applications. Journal of Rational-Emotive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy; 2008, 26: 263–275. DOI 10.1007/s10942-008-0086-5.
International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy. (2014). About IPT. International Society for Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Retrieved on 13 November, 2014, from: hyperlink.
Klerman, G. L., Weissman, M. M., Rounsaville, B. J., & Chevron, E. S. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Linton, J. (n.d.). Interpersonal therapy. Retrieved on 18 November, 2014, from: hyperlink.
Markowitz, J.C. & Weissman, M.M. (2004). Interpersonal psychotherapy: Principles and applications. World Psychiatry; October 2004, 3(3): 136-139.
Robertson, M., Rushton, P., & Wurm, C. (2008). Interpersonal psychotherapy: An overview. Psychotherapy in Australia; May, 2008, 14(3): 46-54.
Stuart, S. (2006). Interpersonal psychotherapy: A guide to the basics. Psychiatric Annals; August, 2006, 36(8): 542-550.
Weissman, M.M., Prusoff, B.A., Dimascio, A., Neu, C., Goklaney, M., & Klerman, G.L. (1979). The efficacy of drugs and psychotherapy in the treatment of acute depressive episodes. American Journal of Psychiatry; 1979, 136(4B): 555-558.
Wikipedia. (2014). Psychic determinism. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Retrieved on 19 November, 2014, from: hyperlink.
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The Institute has a list of recommended textbooks and DVDs that can add great value to your learning journey - and the good news is that you can purchase them very easily. The AIPC bookstore will give you discounted prices, an easy ordering method and quality guarantee!
This fortnight's feature is...
Name: Theory & Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Author: Corey, G.
AIPC Code: COREY
AIPC Price: $107.20 (RRP $127.95)
Corey’s current conscientious and student-friendly book shows you how to put eleven key counselling theories into practice and helps you develop the counselling method that’s right for you.
Freeing yourself from “the summer body” compulsion
Please, oh please, do not let the quest for an unrealistic, unattainable standard of so-called “beauty” define your summer. The days are getting longer and if you’re lucky, someone else in your house will be cleaning the barbie. All of this spells: SUMMER! But many Australians of both genders view this season with trepidation. It also means a time when warmer temperatures encourage us to dress with fewer layers, exposing more flesh. For those who possess a “summer body compulsion” as tightly worn as their bathing togs, summer can be a time of enormous stress, discouragement and angst.
The internet on “summer body”
A recent search on Google for “summer body in Australia” turned up the following just on the first page:
“Change your workout for the ultimate summer body”
“Healthy, sexy summer bodies”
“Get cut up: your leanest summer ever”
“Workouts and exercises to help you get your perfect body”
“Let’s get skinny for summer”
“Perfect body in summer”
“Skinny summer bod”
What’s the real message?
Now, let’s be clear from the start: there are some preparations that – in the interest of sheer physical health – we should definitely observe as summer heats up. We should, for example, make sure we have sunscreen, sun hats, and sun shirts. However, the highest results on Google have a distinct emphasis on body attractiveness and not necessarily health.
Now, don’t get me wrong; there’s nothing wrong with being attractive! And to be fair, a few advertisers encourage a balanced approach to body-image issues (like the Dove “real women” campaign). But others want to sell you their products and services with the promise of giving you “the perfect summer body” – and these messages can be destructive, not positive. The subtext is if you don’t buy the advertised products/services, you won’t attain the perfect body and should remain in a king sized Homer Simpson Muumuu all summer – hiding your imperfect body!
Are we buying from compulsion?
And here’s the scary bit: we are uncritically buying into it! Australians purchased $8 billion dollars worth of beauty products in 2012; that was in addition to the $10.5 billion we spent on “personal care” that year (ASIC MoneySmart, 2014). There is an underlying belief that, when we buy beauty products, we are not buying “beauty” itself, but rather, we are buying hope. This hope however, springs from a sad motivation: the desperate need to look good because we see ourselves through a distorted lens, one which says we must look “perfect” (that is: glossy-magazine, unrealistic, celebrity “perfect”) or else we have no value at all.
The distorted lens means that the thoughts we generate about ourselves are distortions. Called “cognitive distortions”, they come from maladaptive beliefs about ourselves, such as that we “should” or “must” be or look a particular way to have worth. It’s only a tiny baby step from this realisation to the awareness that, when we fork over hard-earned cash for that hugely expensive cosmetic procedure, we are not entirely objective in our decision-making. We are acting from compulsion, which is a similar process to what happens in the brain when people become addicted to a substance.
We say: enjoy your summer! Go for an enhanced “body beautiful” if it helps you to feel more confident. But please, oh please, do not let the quest for an unrealistic, unattainable standard of so-called “beauty” define your summer – or any season. Acting from compulsion has never given human beings the long-term happiness they seek from it.
Written by Dr Meg CarbonattoB.S., M.A., and Ph.D.
This article was originally published in Asteron Life’s Balance Blog. AIPC regularly contributes to Balance’s wellbeing blog category.
7 Common Relationship Challenges
Like most interpersonal relationships, most romantic couples experience some challenge at some point in their relationship. Some of these common challenges may include infidelity, loss of intimacy, communication difficulties, coping with stress challenges, financial pressures, boundary violations, difficulty balancing individual and couple expectations, divorce, separation and breaking up. Whatever the challenge, it is important to note that all dyadic relationships will experience some kind of distress at some point. We will examine some of the more common romantic relationship challenges below.
Counselling and the Neurobiology of Personal Experience
The research in neuroscience is highly supportive of counselling’s emphasis on deep listening, empathic understanding, strength building, and wellness (Ivey, Ivey, Zalaquett, & Quirk, 2011). Counselling is shown to change the organisation of the brain: a learning process as the brain responds to stimuli and creates neural pathways to accommodate new information (Ivey, 2009). “Information” includes experiences, actions, thoughts, and cues: both those emanating from within ourselves and those from others and most especially including those stimuli arising within the therapeutic relationship. As John Ratey (2008, in Sullivan, 2012) said, “Experiences, thoughts, actions and emotions actually change the structure of our brains” (emphasis added).
In this article, we review five key processes behind the neurobiology of personal experience. These processes are: neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, the importance of attention and focus, understanding emotion and focusing on strengths and positives.
Mental Health Academy – First to Knowledge in Mental Health
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When you join our Premium Level membership, you’ll get all-inclusive access to over 50 hours of video workshops (presented by leading mental health experts) on-demand, 24/7.
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You’ll also get FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the Psychological First Aid course ($595.00 value). The PFA course a high quality 10-hour program developed by Mental Health Academy in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.
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Some upcoming programs:
- Counselling and the Brain: An Overview
- Using CBT with Depression
- Treating Depression with Motivational Interviewing
- Basics of Interpersonal Therapy
- Treating Post-Natal Depression with Interpersonal Therapy
- Treating the Traumatised Client (course series)
- Dealing with Dementia
Have you visited Counselling Connection yet? There are over 650 interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
What can depressed seniors do to alleviate their own depression?
As a counsellor/therapist, doctor, allied health professional (or just a caregiver) of a depressed older adult, you are undoubtedly wondering what you can do to encourage them to help themselves. The following list is a compilation of strategies and tips culled from sites specialising in caring for the depressed elderly. You may wish to discuss the options named with your client and generate further options with them in session. Alternatively, you may wish to print out the list and give a copy to either the depressed person (if s/he is your client), or their caregiver (if that person is).
Click here to access this post and leave a comment.
Group counselling is an effective method of treatment because of the therapy’s powerful use of peer pressure: Click to view.
Some research-based tips to flex your cortex and improve cognitive performance: Click to view.
Family Issues When There is Disability, Illness, or Serious Injury: Click to view.
Social Anxiety Disorder: The Core Patterns and Symptoms: Click to view.
The Essential Brain System That is Hijacked in OCD, Alcoholism, Binge Eating And More: Click to view.
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"Accept the things to which fate binds you, and love the people with whom fate brings you together, but do so with all your heart."
~ Marcus Aurelius
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.
Below are upcoming seminars available for the first semester of 2015.
BRISBANE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 07-08/03, 16-17/05
Communication Skills I: 01/02, 12/04, 14/06
Communication Skills II: 21/02, 26/04, 20/06
Counselling Therapies I: 28-29/03, 27-28/06
Counselling Therapies II: 07-08/02, 09-10/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 22/02, 31/05
Family Therapy: 22/03, 13/06
Case Management: 28/02-01/03, 23-24/05
GOLD COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 16-17/01, 17-18/04
Communication Skills I: 21/02, 15/05
Communication Skills II: 28/03, 20/06
Counselling Therapies I: 20-21/03
Counselling Therapies II: 22-23/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 12/06
Family Therapy: 20/02
Case Management: 23-24/04
SUNSHINE COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 31/01-01/02, 16-17/05
Communication Skills I: 28/02, 13/06
Communication Skills II: 01/03, 14/06
Counselling Therapies I: 14-15/03, 27-28/06
Counselling Therapies II: 11-12/04
Legal & Ethical Framework: 14/02, 30/05
Family Therapy: 18/04
Case Management: 28-29/03
MELBOURNE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 10-11/01, 14-15/02, 28-29/03, 06-07/03, 23-24/04, 09-10/05, 05-06/06, 20-21/06
Communication Skills I: 17/01, 21/02, 13/03, 11/04, 16/05, 27/06
Communication Skills II: 18/01, 22/02, 14/03, 12/04, 17/05, 28/06
Counselling Therapies I: 24-25/01, 28/02-01/03, 18-19/04, 23-24/05
Counselling Therapies II: 31/01-01/02, 07-08/03, 25-26/04, 30-31/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 31/01, 14/03, 10/04, 06/06
Family Therapy: 01/02, 15/03, 08/05, 07/06
Case Management: 07-08/02, 21-22/03, 02-03/05, 13-14/06
DARWIN (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 15/03, 14/06
Communication Skills I: 22/02, 24/05
Communication Skills II: 22/02, 24/05
Counselling Therapies I: 19/04
Counselling Therapies II: 08/02, 28/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/03
Family Therapy: 17/05
Case Management: 29/03
ADELAIDE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 14-15/02, 11-12/04, 13-14/06
Communication Skills I: 31/01, 28/03, 09/05
Communication Skills II: 01/02, 29/03, 10/05
Counselling Therapies I: 21-22/02, 02-03/05
Counselling Therapies II: 14-15/03, 30-31/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/02, 16/05
Family Therapy: 08/02, 17/05
Case Management: 21-22/03, 23-24/05
SYDNEY (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 29-30/01, 05-06/03, 30-31/03, 16-17/04, 07-08/05, 28-29/05
Communication Skills I: 26/02, 21/03, 20/04, 22/06
Communication Skills II: 27/02, 28/03, 04/05, 23/06
Counselling Therapies I: 23-24/02, 27-28/04, 29-30/06
Counselling Therapies II: 02-03/02, 19-20/03, 18-19/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 04/02, 21/04
Family Therapy: 02/03, 05/05
Case Management: 09-10/03, 22-23/05
LAUNCESTON (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 12/03, 11/06
Communication Skills I: 21/02, 23/05
Communication Skills II: 21/02, 23/05
Counselling Therapies I: 18/04
Counselling Therapies II: 05/02, 25/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/03
Family Therapy: 14/05
Case Management: 28/03
HOBART (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 15/03, 14/06
Communication Skills I: 22/02, 24/05
Communication Skills II: 22/02, 24/05
Counselling Therapies I: 19/04, 09/08
Counselling Therapies II: 08/02, 28/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/03
Family Therapy: 03/05
Case Management: 29/03
PERTH (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 10-11/01, 28/02-01/03, 28-29/03, 25-26/04, 30-31/05, 27-28/06
Communication Skills I: 17/01, 14/02, 07/03, 02/05, 06/06
Communication Skills II: 18/01, 15/02, 08/03, 03/05, 07/06
Counselling Therapies I: 31/01-01/02, 11-12/04, 13-14/06
Counselling Therapies II: 03/01, 14/03, 09/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 03/01, 14/03, 09/05
Family Therapy: 04/01, 15/03, 10/05
Case Management: 24-25/01, 21-22/03, 23-24/05
Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.
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