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Copyright: 2012 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors
WELCOME  

Welcome to Edition 212 of Institute Inbrief! In this edition we continue our two-part series on the needs, motivations and traps of providing emotional and psychological support. Part 2 (click here to read part 1) identifies common traps the “unwary helper” may fall into when supporting clients and/or loved ones.

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Enjoy your reading!

 

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INTOstudies  

 

Bachelor of Counselling

 

Become A Counsellor or Expand On Your Qualifications

With Australia’s Most Cost Effective & Flexible

Bachelor of Counselling

 

AIPC is Australia’s largest and longest established educator of Counsellors. Over the past 22-years we’ve helped over 55,000 people from 27 countries pursue their dream of becoming a professional Counsellor.

 

The Bachelor of Counselling is a careful blend of theory and practical application. Theory is learnt through user-friendly learning materials that have been carefully designed to make your studies as accessible and conducive to learning as possible.

 

You can gain up to a full year’s academic credit (and save up to $8,700.00 with RPL) with a Diploma qualification. And the program is government Fee Help approved. With Fee-Help you can learn now and pay later: the government will finance all or part of your tuition fees, which you only start to repay from $40 per week once your income exceeds $51,309.

 

Here are some facts about the course:

  • Study externally from anywhere in Australia, even overseas.
  • Residential Schools in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane.
  • Save up to $57,000 on your qualification.
  • Start with just 1 subject.
  • Online learning portal with access to all study materials, readings and video lectures.
  • No minimum HSC or OP results required to gain entry.
  • Learn in a friendly, small group environment.

You can learn more here: www.aipc.edu.au/degree

 

Click here to see what students think of the program.

 

 

Bachelor of Psychological Science

 

Earn-While-You-Learn With Australia's

Best Value-for-Money & Flexible

Bachelor of Psychological Science

 

Psychology is one of the most versatile undergraduate courses, leading to many different career opportunities. And now there's a truly flexible way to get your qualification – with internal or external study options. It means working while you study is a realistic alternative.

 

Cost of living pressures and lifestyle choices are evolving the way we learn and Australian Institute of Psychology (AIP) is paving the way through flexible, innovative learning models:

  • Study externally from anywhere in Australia, even overseas.
  • Residential Schools in Melbourne*, Sydney* and Brisbane.
  • Save up to $35,800 on your qualification.
  • Get started with NO MONEY DOWN with FEE-HELP.
  • Start with just 1 subject.
  • Online learning portal with access to all study materials, readings and video lectures.
  • Accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC).
  • No minimum HSC or OP results required to gain entry.
  • Learn in a friendly, small group environment.

*Residential Schools in Melbourne and Sydney are available for CORE subjects only.

 

AIP is a registered Higher Education Provider with the Australian Government, delivering a three-year Bachelor of Psychological Science. The Bachelor of Psychological Science is accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC), the body that sets the standards of training for Psychology education in Australasia.

 

APAC accreditation requirements are uniform across all universities and providers in the country, meaning that Australian Institute of Psychology, whilst a private Higher Education Provider, is required to meet exactly the same high quality standards of training, education and support as any university provider in the country.

 

You can learn more here: www.aip.edu.au/degree

 

 

Diploma of Counselling

 

AIPC provides you with flexible course delivery modes

So YOU set the rules for how and when you learn...

 

AIPC’s accredited and nationally recognised Diploma of Counselling is designed so that you determine the manner and pace you study. You study entirely at your own pace (except of course if you’re receiving a government benefit such as Austudy) and you can start at any time, graduating in only 18-months.

 

Not only can you set the pace you study, you also determine the mode you want to study. You can study externally (at home with phone and email access to our counselling tutors); in-Class; online or any combination… all the time fully supported by our huge national team throughout our 8 Student Support Centres.

 

External learning means you can complete your entire course from the comfort of your home (or office, or overseas, or virtually anywhere). Your course comes complete with fully self-contained, referenced and professionally presented learning materials including 18 individual workbooks and readings. It really is as simple as working through the material and contacting us for support along the way. If you live locally to one of our support centres you can also attend tutorials to provide you with face to face contact if you wish (this option is ideal if you enjoy working more independently or have a busy schedule).

 

In-Class learning is a classroom forum where you learn with other students from a qualified lecturer. Classes are available in most main cities, at flexible times. In-Class is a great way for you to accelerate your learning, interact with other students and stay highly motivated. (This option is particularly suitable if you enjoy learning in the classroom environment with other students).

 

Online learning allows you to complete your learning entirely via your PC. You still receive all the high quality hardcopy resources (so you don’t miss out on anything!), but you’ll access all your learning materials and complete assessments online.

 

Any combination. Of course you don’t have to stick with one learning method throughout your studies. You’re welcome to use whichever method suits your needs and desires at the time. You may choose to complete one workbook in-Class, another online, then externally. Whatever is most convenient!

 

You can learn more here: www.aipc.net.au/course_dippro.php

INTOmentalhealth  

 

Responding to the rise in self-injury among youth

 

The prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents and young adults has rapidly and significantly increased in recent years, leading mental health professionals and researchers to describe its pervasiveness as epidemic. By definition, a person does not engage in NSSI with intent Photo of authors Brent Richardson and Kendra Surmitisto die. Rather, NSSI is a means of regulating emotions, relieving tensions, managing dissociative symptoms and influencing others. It is critical that counselors working with youth gain an understanding of NSSI and recognize its prevalence within the adolescent population.

 

There is growing evidence that many teenagers who engage in NSSI have been influenced by their peers. In 1985, Barent Walsh and Paul Rosen defined self-injury contagion in two.

 

Click here to read the full article.

INTOcounselling  

 

Caring for others: Avoiding common traps

 

In the last edition's article we highlighted needs and motivations behind providing emotional and psychological support to others, touching on the “shadow” side of helping: trying to meet personal needs through the helping relationship. Both professional and non-professional helpers can unwittingly do this, even when they are meticulous, highly ethical helpers, so it is crucial to gain an understanding of how this happens.

 

The principal concepts we will be working with in this article are narcissism, transference and countertransference, enmeshment, rescuing, co-dependency, and burnout.

 

Narcissism: the self-centred helper

 

Defined as the “failure of relationship”, narcissism takes its name from the Greek myth about the aloof but magnetic young man who is enraptured by the beautiful image that he sees reflected back at him in a pool of water. He falls in love with the boy in the pool and wants to be with him always. The gods turn him into a narcissus, the flower that grows by the side of the riverbank, so that he can hang over and enjoy the gazing (Pontikis, 2010).

 

Similarly, narcissists are seriously self-absorbed. Swinging between an arrogant sense of entitlement (“nothing but the best for me”) and the despair of feeling that they have nothing at all to offer, narcissists lack compassion, both for themselves and for others. Often possessing a veneer of charm, they can attract people to themselves. But their relationships cannot work long-term because narcissists are not in relationship with themselves. Beneath the charm is a stone-cold heart. In between the extremes of emptiness and thinking that they are “special”, there is no middle place of right-valuation of themselves (watch our popular YouTube lecture on Narcissism to learn more about the topic).

 

One way in which these self-centred behaviours show up in a helping relationship is that, because the narcissistic helper is not truly sensitive to the helpee, the “helping” acts are performed in a way that meets the needs of the helper, but not necessarily the helpee. You may have seen them in action already. There is the professional that you go to see who spends the whole appointment time talking about themselves. There is the volunteer at the disaster scene who is quick to grab the credit when the media’s cameras are rolling. He believes that his little contribution was massive and must be immediately recognised above all others – even if he has done relatively little.

 

Then there is the self-help group member who just “knows” that her story of addiction recovery is wonderful material for a hit movie; she spends all the time at the meetings letting other members know just how great her particular recovery effort was. Sadly, narcissism is not just seen around Hollywood. It can strike anyone, even adults who were not previously afflicted, if the person – perhaps as a result of life circumstances – comes to regard that he, his gifts, and his life are “special”.

 

Transference

 

Imagine these two situations:

 

1. You enrol in a course on French cooking. As you come in and see the instructor, a pleasant-looking man (or woman) from Paris, you have an immediate and strong emotional reaction. You suddenly find yourself overwhelmed with the desire to cook with creative abandon, and to please him/her by showing him that you can do this French cuisine thing, but you are also aware of an uncharacteristic sense of self-doubt and fear of failure.

 

2. You offer to run a support group for teenage girls who have just given birth and are solo parenting. You give a lot of attention to one of the young women, Maya, but it is not positive attention. From the very first meeting, you notice that when she says something, you find yourself wanting to argue with her. When she is quiet, you feel the desire to challenge her on lack of participation. Generally, you crack the whip hard on Maya, which surprises you, because you pride yourself on being fair.

 

If you have ever experienced reactions like those described in the above situations, where you had an intense reaction to someone whom you just met or at least didn’t know very well, then you may already be familiar with the experience of transference. Transference has been defined as a person’s carryover of feelings from past relationships into a new one. The normal relationship-building activities of many sorts of support work create feelings of safety. Being deeply listened to without judgment, being given unconditional positive regard and being inspired with hope create the conditions which can enhance transference. It often operates at an out-of-awareness level, and involves helpees and others putting onto a helper past feelings or attitudes they had towards significant people in their lives. It typically has its origins in early childhood, and often involves a repetition of past conflicts (Corey and Corey, 2007).

 

In the examples above, the French cooking instructor may have reminded you of your own creative but critical father/mother, whom you tried over and over again – perhaps without much success – to impress. Failing to earn his/her approval, you may have spent most of your life looking for other people who could be in the role of “dad/mum” and from whom you could elicit approvals. Working things out with a “fake” dad/mum, however, is never as satisfying as doing so with the person with whom we had the original, and probably unfinished, conflict, so we keep setting up more such situations, usually without realising it.

 

In the second example, Maya may have reminded you of yourself at that age. When family-of-origin caregivers lacked compassion towards you, their feelings of non-acceptance may have been planted in your mind. Unable to deal with that at the time, you may gone all these years with the fires of self-hatred secretly smouldering inside you, only to come alive now and be put onto Maya.

 

Or both of these examples could stem from very different histories. The point about transference is that strong feelings are evoked that do not make sense in the context of the present relationship. The helpee’s feelings that are evoked can be either positive, such as liking or attraction; negative, including such reactions as mistrustfulness and dislike; or neutral. While some types of transference may be more pleasant to encounter in your helping than others, all of them mean that the care recipient is not really seeing you for the person you are. As a result, the person probably will at some stage have expectations of you as helper that you are not willing or able to meet. Even if the relationship does not terminate as a result of the transference, you will undoubtedly be sitting with some strong emotions.

 

Counter-transference

 

So far we’ve looked at the reactions of recipients of emotional and psychological care. What about for the person offering the support? As helpers we may believe that we should be perfectly neutral responders to the people to whom we give social support. We may consider any deviation from that to be faulty: an emotional reaction that we must forever hide – or risk exposing ourselves as an incompetent imposter. Those just beginning to work with helpees would undoubtedly be shocked to realise the variety and intensity of emotions that helpees evoke in their helpers during the work.

 

Some of the more unnerving ones include: anger, frustration, resentment, pain, shame, fear, sexual attraction, anxiety, inadequacy, self-doubt, exposure, and the need for reassurance. In a survey of American psychologists, over 80% reported such feelings (Pope and Tabachnik, 1993), and these were professionals! So note that, if you are a lay person – you will undoubtedly encounter times when you react, even strongly, to your helpee. Countertransference is defined as “the helper’s strong emotional reactions to a client” (Young, 2005). It is information that needs to be dealt with effectively within helping sessions, and sometimes beyond them (Pearlman and Saakvitne, 1995). The tricky aspect of handling countertransference arises partly from the paradox in which it occurs.

 

To be effective in supporting someone, we need to be sensitive to our helpee’s feelings and concerns, but respond to them from a place that is not caught up in their pain. In order to be sensitive, we must be able to feel our own feelings. But it is exactly those which get triggered in helping work, drawing us out of our “safe” place and into areas of unhealed pain – often similar to what the helpee is dealing with. For example, you may be supporting a person with a close relative in hospice. The person may be stuck in grief over the impending finish of that loved one’s life. Their sadness and inability to let go and move on could reawaken your own unresolved grief. The main goal with transference may be to simply become aware of when it is happening. If as helpers we fail to realise that transference is at hand, we have changed the contract. Where before we had an agreement to set our own “stuff” aside and engage the helpee as a partner to achieve a goal we derived together – a goal to help the helpee – now we have an agenda in which the care recipient becomes something else to us: possibly a friend, a sexual object, a “fake” someone (surrogate) for our unfinished developmental work, or even a reflection of our own selves.

 

Transference, whether coming from you or your helpee, can be subtle and hard to recognise.

  • Concentrate for a moment on someone whom you may have met fairly recently. Reflect on how you feel and behave when you are with them.
  • In what ways might this be different from how you normally feel and behave? For example, Chris noticed that she was always clumsy – dropping things and bumping into objects – when around her colleague Dale.
  • Can you identify any other, possibly more longstanding relationship, where you behave (including involuntarily) in this way?
  • Does this recently-met person remind you of anyone you know or have known? If yes, who is it?
  • What is your relationship (the longstanding one) like? Are you aware of any unmet needs you have as a result of this relationship? Are there any unresolved issues between you?

Enmeshment

 

Also called “fusion”, enmeshment in a relationship happens when those relating do not have clear boundaries. It is necessary to include discussion of it in any text which tries to assist helpers in being more effective, because it is what happens when helpers get too close to their helpees. If a person is fused or enmeshed with another, it means that their personal boundaries are blurred. They are unclear about where they end and the other person begins. An enmeshed person is often confused about their feelings, needs, and even thoughts. Such a person will not have a strong sense of self, and may experience a range of terrifying emotions, such as being smothered, empty, or lost. If healthy limit-setting and protection of their emerging self is not learned early in life (say, in the family), the person will probably not have the capacity for true closeness in personal relationships. On a professional level, or in informal helping relationships, it may create confusion and false expectations for both helper and helpee, and this could damage the helping relationship. Look at these terms describing enmeshment (Whitfield, 1993, p 129):

  • Pushes Buttons
  • Over-responsible
  • Over-involved
  • Clinging
  • Walking on eggs
  • Triangle
  • Needing to control
  • Loose or rigid boundaries
  • High tolerance for inappropriate behaviour
  • Fear of abandonment
  • Feeling obligated
  • Can’t say no
  • Weighed down
  • Exploited
  • All-or-none
  • Stuck
  • Resentment
  • Frustration

Not surprisingly, the issue of enmeshment is closely intertwined with that of independence/ dependence. A person with unhealthy independence may be rigid and disengaged in relationships, whereas a person with healthy independence maintains appropriate distance and privacy. Similarly with dependence, an unhealthy dependence happens when a person is co-dependent with another (more on co-dependence in a moment). A healthy dependence results in appropriate closeness and sharing (Whitfield, 1993).

 

Though the place we “draw the line” in any given situation may be somewhat open to interpretation, the helper who would avoid enmeshment is neither rigidly independent and disengaged, nor resentfully dependent and stuck in the place of martyrdom. The above description seems clear about how enmeshment might happen in a personal relationship. But how does it show up in a supporter’s relationship with a helpee? The support person with enmeshment issues can be identified by behaviours such as:

  • Making the helpee’s decisions for them
  • Becoming too involved with helpees, such as community caregivers that are paid to assist someone for, say one hour, but routinely work much more, to the detriment of their other responsibilities
  • Passing resentful or snide remarks: “Well, I’m going grocery shopping for the Queen Bee today.”
  • Failing to say no to helpees when they need to, and feeling frustrated and exploited
  • Tolerating rude or aggressive, put-down behaviour by helpees without addressing it;
  • Finding difficulty trusting others in the helping situation. This could include agency managers, other volunteers or caregivers, those with whom they liaise in the community (e.g., professionals in the health system), or the helpees themselves.

As unfortunate as enmeshment is, there are also many other ways the process of social support can go awry. We turn to rescuing.

 

Rescuing

 

Imagine this scene. You are walking on a beach when suddenly you hear cries for help. Out on the water, where the wind is whipping up the waves, you see a person struggling to avoid drowning. Alarmed, you kick off your shoes and begin swimming out to save her. You hadn’t counted on the seas being so rough, though, or the drowning person being so heavy and unwieldy. You are trying to help, but she -- in her desperation – is fighting you every step of the way, clutching at your throat and succeeding several times in pulling you down. You are getting quickly exhausted, and with the tide going out, you see that you are making precious little progress towards shore. You wonder how you will do it, but little by little you inch your way back towards the beach. You both survive, and you are hailed as a hero in the local papers.

 

Now take your thoughts up one octave, to the realm of mental health. This time the drowning person is an alcoholic. Somehow you also get caught up in this rescue effort, only it takes months – threatening to roll into years – of intensive working with the person to “save” them from their addiction. You try everything, from rehabilitation programs to self-help 12-step groups, to religion. Though there are victories along the way, the person keeps going under: being arrested multiple times for drunk and disorderly behaviour and losing their job and their partner in the process. After one particularly disheartening incident, you pause and take stock. The person hasn’t thanked you; they don’t even seem to care, and they are still just as addicted to the bottle as they were when you started helping them. The formal community support systems don’t recognise all that you’ve done, and you are mentally and emotionally exhausted. You have been diagnosed with depression and you are burning out.

 

In the first situation, you achieved what in general English usage we call a rescue. It had the enormously positive social benefit of saving a life, although you almost lost yours in the process. In the second situation, however, the type of “saving” that you were doing is described by the technical usage of the mental-health-field term “rescuing”. It refers to the process of trying to change or “fix” another person, or “save” them from themselves, possibly doing things for them that ultimately, they must do for themselves. It often springs from a motivation of needing to care for others, as we discussed previously, and it usually does not achieve its stated goal of change for the person being rescued. It is also called compulsive caretaking.

 

Helping types are fond of drawing parallels between their situation and that of Chiron, the wounded healer. In Greek mythology, Chiron is the son of a god and a goat. A centaur (half man, half goat), Chiron sustains a deep wound. As the child of a god, he works teaching other children of gods, but Chiron’s highest gift is that he also possesses special healing powers, and is able to heal many who come to him. Sadly, he cannot heal himself, and his own wounds remain largely unhealed. (Crystalinks, undated).

 

Helpers such as counsellors, psychotherapists, social workers, and lay persons, like other groups of human beings, vary in their capacity for compassion, and for allowing themselves to be vulnerable. Those who would be effective at helping, however, must be able to walk a fine line. It is between allowing themselves to be vulnerable and sensitive in a way that serves their work as helpers, and being vulnerable in a way which shows inability to move past their own hurts. The latter would limit their healing/helping capacity. It is this special ability of helpers to be both wounded enough to be sensitive, and yet healed enough to assist wounded others that enables helpers to sit with those in distress.

 

Baker (2003) is clear about the dangers of rescuing: “Compulsive caretaking may appear to observers as involving a deep level of empathy or a strong commitment to being helpful and cooperative. But in actuality, compulsive caretaking is a reflexive, conditioned reaction, driven by the caregiver’s own unacknowledged self needs. It manifests in an overattunedness to others’ needs, feeling overly responsible for others, a compulsion to fix other’s problems, and a deep hunger to be needed and appreciated. In such cases, the overt helping self covers over underlying feelings of inadequacy and dependency on external validation of one’s worth” (p 53).

 

Co-dependence

 

Also related to blurred boundaries is the condition of co-dependence. Popularly termed the disease of the lost self, co-dependence can occasionally be problematic for people in their relationships with helpees, manifesting as a strong focus on helpee needs and feelings to the detriment of the helper’s own, and a taking of inappropriate responsibility for the helpee. Often, though, it is a condition which helpers must learn to recognise in helpees whom they are supporting. The implications of co-dependence for helpees are significant, in that changes the helpee wishes to make in his/ her life are filtered through the boundary distortions and exclusion of care for their own needs. In co-dependence, there may be a less available sense of self – the “I” who directs the change effort – for the supporting person to work with.

 

Co-dependence was originally defined as being a family member of an alcoholic, and refers to “the set of maladaptive and/or immature responses, behaviours, and feelings that may be experienced by someone closely involved with an actively chemical dependent person. The chemical(s) involved may be alcohol, other drugs, or combinations” (Sullivan, Bissell, & Williams, 1988). Most co-dependence occurs from childhood, and usually no other disorder in the co-dependent person causes it, although one or more disorders – including addictions – may exist alongside of it. In recent years the concept has broadened in popular usage, and it is now used to refer to both stress-related disorders and early personality disorders as well as close association with chemically dependent persons. If you suspect that someone you are helping is co-dependent, you can be on the lookout for symptoms such as:

  • Gaining self-esteem from being able to control their own and others’ feelings and behaviour;
  • Assuming responsibility for meeting others’ needs to the exclusion of acknowledging own needs;
  • Anxiety and boundary distortions in situations of intimacy and separation;
  • Enmeshment in relationships with personality-disordered, drug-dependent, and impulse-disordered individuals;
  • Three or more of the following symptoms:
    • Holding back emotions with or without dramatic outbursts;
    • Depression;
    • Hypervigilance (being excessively alert);
    • Compulsions;
    • Anxiety;
    • Excessive reliance on denial;
    • Substance abuse;
    • Recurrent physical or sexual abuse;
    • Stress-related medical illness;
    • A primary relationship with an active substance abuser for at least two years without seeking outside support (Zetterlind and Berglund,1999, pp 147-148).

Co-dependence may not be the worst distress a helper or helpee ever experiences, nor is it the most prevalent. But recognising its symptoms and moving in the direction of professional help – towards the recovery of the self – is ultimately rewarding.

 

Burnout

 

Herb Freudenberger (1974) first used the term “burnout” to talk about therapists who were no longer functioning effectively. He defined it as, “a depletion or exhaustion of a person’s mental and physical resources attributed to his or her prolonged yet unsuccessful striving toward unrealistic expectations, internally or externally derived” (p 223). Like other terms starting in the mental health field, its usage has broadened considerably. Professionals in many fields now commonly talk about getting burned out. The symptoms include fatigue, frustration, disengagement, stress, depletion, helplessness, hopelessness, emotional drain, emotional exhaustion, and cynicism (Skovholt, 2001, p 107).

 

Causes of burnout may arise within one’s own mind or in the environment in which one works and lives. The physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion is a function of both emotional pressure and intense, long-term involvement with people. It has been called the “terminal” phase of therapist distress. Burnout is characterised by feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, and increasingly negative views of oneself, one’s life, and other people. It can be measured it in terms of emotional depletion, detachment from other people – especially one’s helpees – and a decline in feelings of personal competence and achievement in one’s work. It represents “an erosion of the human soul” (Maslach & Leiter, 1997, p 17).

 

The factors that lead to it are work overload; feeling unappreciated, unrecognised, or unrewarded; lack of control; loss of community; and value conflicts, usually arising in one’s work. A candidate for burnout may feel that there is great unfairness in their work. These factors generate a loss of morale, feelings of depression and a decreased capacity for effective coping, which undermines productivity and tends to increase feelings of isolation. As we noted before with some of the motivations associated with helping, a person on the way to burnout is becoming steadily more depleted, physically, emotionally, and mentally. Their emotional bank account has had many “withdrawals”, but no significant “deposits”, and the person is running on empty, with little to give (Maslach and Leiter, 1997; Baker, 2003).

 

Review this list of typical symptoms: Do you see yourself in any of them?

  • Feeling emotionally drained and exhausted
  • Loss of enthusiasm and energy
  • A cynical attitude towards (helping) work
  • Loss of
    INTObookstore  

     

    The Institute has a list of recommended textbooks and DVDs that can add great value to your learning journey - and the good news is that you can purchase them very easily. The AIPC bookstore will give you discounted prices, an easy ordering method and quality guarantee!

     

    This fortnight's feature is...

     

    Name: Putting together Your Own Life: A workbook for you to manage recovery

    Author: Francess Day

    AIPC Code: DAY2

    AIPC Price: $50.00 (RRP $62.50)

    ISBN: 0-9580102-0-X

     

    This will provide an invaluable aid for survivors of all forms of trauma who courageously choose to move beyond their pain and suffering in the quest to rebuild their lives. This workbook is a logical extension to assisting trauma survivors.

     

    To order this book, contact your Student Support Centre or the AIPC Head Office (1800 657 667).

    INTOarticles  

     

    Depression in older adults: What does it look like?

     

    There are 31 million Americans 65 years or older, and five million of them (just over 16 percent) have depression (Boswell & Stoudemire, 1996). In Australia, one million people currently suffer from depression, and 14 percent will have it at some point in their lives (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008). There is some debate as to whether the prevalence of depression increases or decreases with age, with a recent report suggesting that there are fewer diagnoses of depression in older people as the rates are considerably lower than for younger people.

     

    However, when broader measures are used which do not exclude from diagnosing contextual conditions more prevalent in older people – such as bereavement or dementia – the prevalence among community-dwelling elders is reported to be between six and twenty percent of that population: not inconsistent with the American figures. That rises to about 48 percent among the elderly living in hospitals (Bryant, Jackson, & Ames, 2009), and up to 50 percent for older people living in residential aged care (Cummings, 2002).

     

    Click here to continue reading this article.

     

     

    OCD: A Half-century of Evolving Treatments

     

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is said to affect 2% to 3% of the Australian population (that is: more than 500,000 Australians). OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder and is characterised by: Intrusive thoughts that engender uneasiness, apprehension, fear, or worry (that is: obsessions); Repetitive behaviours which the OCD individual undertakes in order to reduce the worry (compulsions), or A combination of obsessions and compulsions (Wikipedia, 2013a).

     

    In this article, we explore the different treatments that can be used to assist clients suffering from OCD and its related behaviours.

     

    Click here to continue reading this article.

     

    More articles: www.aipc.net.au/articles

    INTOdevelopment  

     

    Mental Health Academy – First to Knowledge in Mental Health

     

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    We want you to experience unlimited, unrestricted access to the largest repository of professional development programs available anywhere in the country.

     

    When you join our Premium Level membership, you’ll get all-inclusive access to over 50 hours of video workshops (presented by leading mental health experts) on-demand, 24/7.

     

    You’ll also get access to over 100 specialist courses exploring a huge range of topics, including counselling interventions, communications skills, conflict, child development, mental health disorders, stress and trauma, relationships, ethics, reflective practice, plus much more. 

     

    You’ll also get FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the Psychological First Aid course ($595.00 value). The PFA course a high quality 10-hour program developed by Mental Health Academy in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.

     

    Benefits of becoming a premium member:

    • FREE and exclusive PFA course ($595.00 value)
    • Over 100 specialist courses to choose from
    • Over 50 hours of video learning on-demand
    • CPD endorsed by leading industry associations
    • Videos presented by international experts
    • New programs released every month
    • Huge range of topics and modalities
    • Online, 24/7 access

    Some upcoming programs:

    • Counselling the Gender-Diverse Client
    • Using CBT with Generalised Anxiety Disorder
    • Using CBT with Social Anxiety Disorder
    • Using CBT with Panic Disorder

    Learn more and join today: www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium

    INTOconnection  

     

    Have you visited Counselling Connection yet? There are over 650 interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).

     

    Emotion in motion

     

    If you look at the Oxford Dictionary entry for the word ‘emotion’, you will find it is a noun, a thing, described as follows: 1/ A strong feeling deriving from one’s circumstances, mood, or relationships with others: she was attempting to control her emotions: his voice was shaky with emotion. 2/ Instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge: responses have to be based on historical insight, not simply on emotion.

     

    The word originated in the mid-16th century, and is from the French émotion, derived from émouvoir (meaning ‘excite’) which is based on the Latin emovere, from e- (meaning ‘out’) plus movere (meaning ‘move’).

     

    So emotion is a feeling, not a thought, and involves movement. This makes a lot of sense when I think about my 7-year old. If you ask him why he did or said something he shouldn’t have, my son would tell you that he feels his feelings in his body, and his body made him “do it”. This might be his explanation for all manner of things, but usually it’s about feeling hurt or angry and acting out as most kids do.

     

    Click here to access this post.

     

    Get new posts delivered by email! Visit our FeedBurner subscription page and click the link on the subscription box.

     

    URL: www.counsellingconnection.com

    INTOtwitter  

     

    Follow us on Twitter and get the latest and greatest in counselling news. To follow, visit https://twitter.com/counsellingnews and click "Follow".

     

    Featured Tweets

     

    Counselling Sexual and Gender Minorities: Three Key Issues: Click to view.

     

    Suicide: Supporting People with Special Needs in Grieving: Click to view.

     

    A Case of Mid-Life Difficulties: Click to view.

     

    How cultures around the world make decisions: Click to view.

     

    Treating NPD in the Therapy Room: Click to view.

     

    Psychoeducation: Definition, Goals and Methods: Click to view.  

     

    Buy Experiences, Not Things: Click to view.

     

    Note that you need a Twitter profile to follow us. If you do not have one yet, visit https://twitter.com to create a free profile today!

     

    Twitter URL: https://twitter.com/counsellingnews

    INTOquotes  

     

    "This is our predicament: Over and over again, we lose sight of what is important and what isn’t. We crave things over which we have no control, and are not satisfied by the things within our control. We need to regularly stop and take stock; to sit down and determine within ourselves which things are worth valuing and which things are not; which risks are worth the cost and which are not. Even the most confusing or hurtful aspects of life can be made more tolerable by clear seeing and by choice."

     

    ~ Epictetus

    INTOseminars  

     

    Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.

     

    Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.

     

    Below are upcoming seminars available for the remainder of 2014.

     

    Click here to view all seminar dates online.

     

    To register for a seminar, please contact your Student Support Centre.

     

    BRISBANE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 29-30/11

    Communication Skills I: 14/12

    Communication Skills II: 15/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 29-30/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 08-09/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 02/11

    Family Therapy: 13/12

    Case Management: 22-23/11

     

    GOLD COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 05-06/12

    Communication Skills I: 15/11

    Communication Skills II: 12/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 21-22/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 28/11

     

    SUNSHINE COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 08/11

    Communication Skills II: 09/11

    Case Management: 22/11

     

    MELBOURNE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 15-16/11, 06-07/12

    Communication Skills I: 22/11, 13/12

    Communication Skills II: 23/11, 14/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 29-30/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 06-07/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/11, 05/12

    Family Therapy: 02/11, 12/12

    Case Management: 08-09/11

     

    DARWIN (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 06/12

    Communication Skills II: 06/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 13/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 29/11

    Case Management: 15/11

     

    ADELAIDE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 13-14/12

    Communication Skills I: 08/11

    Communication Skills II: 09/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 22-23/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 06-07/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 15/11

    Family Therapy: 16/11

    Case Management: 29-30/11

     

    SYDNEY (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 03-04/11, 27-28/11, 15-16/12

    Communication Skills I: 06/11, 18/12

    Communication Skills II: 07/11, 19/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 11-12/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 20-21/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 03/12

    Family Therapy: 04/12

    Case Management: 05-06/12

     

    LAUNCESTON (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 05/12

    Communication Skills I: 21/11

    Communication Skills II: 21/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 31/10

    Counselling Therapies II: 28/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/11

    Case Management: 12/12

     

    HOBART (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 07/12

    Communication Skills II: 07/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 14/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 30/11

    Family Therapy: 09/11

     

    PERTH (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 15-16/12

    Communication Skills I: 22/11

    Communication Skills II: 23/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 06-07/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 13-14/12

    Family Therapy: 01/11

    Case Management: 08-09/11

     

     

    Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.

     

     

    Course information:

     

    Diploma of Counselling

    Bachelor of Counselling

    Bachelor of Psychological Science

    Vocational Graduate courses

     

    Join our community:

     

    Facebook: www.aipc.net.au/facebook

     

    Twitter: www.aipc.net.au/twitter

     

    Google +: www.aipc.net.au/google

     

    YouTube: www.aipc.net.au/youtube

    INTOseminars  

     

    Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.

     

    Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.

     

    Below are upcoming seminars available for the remainder of 2014.

     

    Click here to view all seminar dates online.

     

    To register for a seminar, please contact your Student Support Centre.

     

    BRISBANE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 29-30/11

    Communication Skills I: 14/12

    Communication Skills II: 15/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 29-30/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 08-09/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 02/11

    Family Therapy: 13/12

    Case Management: 22-23/11

     

    GOLD COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 05-06/12

    Communication Skills I: 15/11

    Communication Skills II: 12/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 21-22/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 28/11

     

    SUNSHINE COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 08/11

    Communication Skills II: 09/11

    Case Management: 22/11

     

    MELBOURNE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 15-16/11, 06-07/12

    Communication Skills I: 22/11, 13/12

    Communication Skills II: 23/11, 14/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 29-30/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 06-07/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/11, 05/12

    Family Therapy: 02/11, 12/12

    Case Management: 08-09/11

     

    DARWIN (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 06/12

    Communication Skills II: 06/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 13/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 29/11

    Case Management: 15/11

     

    ADELAIDE (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 13-14/12

    Communication Skills I: 08/11

    Communication Skills II: 09/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 22-23/11

    Counselling Therapies II: 06-07/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 15/11

    Family Therapy: 16/11

    Case Management: 29-30/11

     

    SYDNEY (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 03-04/11, 27-28/11, 15-16/12

    Communication Skills I: 06/11, 18/12

    Communication Skills II: 07/11, 19/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 11-12/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 20-21/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 03/12

    Family Therapy: 04/12

    Case Management: 05-06/12

     

    LAUNCESTON (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 05/12

    Communication Skills I: 21/11

    Communication Skills II: 21/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 31/10

    Counselling Therapies II: 28/11

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/11

    Case Management: 12/12

     

    HOBART (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    Communication Skills I: 07/12

    Communication Skills II: 07/12

    Counselling Therapies I: 14/12

    Legal & Ethical Framework: 30/11

    Family Therapy: 09/11

     

    PERTH (9.00am – 5.00pm)

     

    The Counselling Process: 15-16/12

    Communication Skills I: 22/11

    Communication Skills II: 23/11

    Counselling Therapies I: 06-07/12

    Counselling Therapies II: 13-14/12

    Family Therapy: 01/11

    Case Management: 08-09/11

     

     

    Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.

     

     

    Course information:

     

    Diploma of Counselling

    Bachelor of Counselling

    Bachelor of Psychological Science

    Vocational Graduate courses

     

    Join our community:

     

    Facebook: www.aipc.net.au/facebook

     

    Twitter: www.aipc.net.au/twitter

     

    Google +: www.aipc.net.au/google

     

    YouTube: www.aipc.net.au/youtube


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