Institute Inbrief - 16/12/2014
Welcome to Edition 216 of Institute Inbrief! This edition’s featured article is a case study about Wendy, a 54 year old woman who has two adult children and has been married for twenty-nine years. Her husband, Steve, has recently and unexpectedly informed her that he no longer loves her and that he wants a divorce. Wendy was shocked to hear this, and she now reports that she is constantly crying and feels extremely anxious.
Also, make sure you review our INTOwellness section below! This new section brings insightful wellness tips and information to improve in your life, and the lives of your loved ones.
And finally, this is our final edition for 2014 – and what a year it has been!! We would like to thank you for your readership during this year, and wish you and your family a wonderful festive season and amazing start of 2015. We will be back in early January with more news, articles, resources and information for your personal and professional development – stay tuned!
Enjoy your reading!
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Imagine Being Passionate About Your Work
And Assisting People Every Day Lead Better Lives
It’s rare these days to hear people talk about their work with true passion. You hear so many stories of people working to pay the bills; putting up with imperfect situations; and compromising on their true desires.
That’s why it’s always so refreshing to hear regular stories from graduates living their dream to be a Counsellor. They’re always so full of energy, enthusiasm and passion. There’s no doubt that counselling is one of the most personally rewarding and enriching professions.
Just imagine someone comes to you for assistance. They’re emotionally paralysed by events in their life. They can’t even see a future for themselves. They can only focus on their pain and grief. The despair is so acute it pervades their entire life. Their relationship is breaking down and heading towards a divorce. They can’t focus on work and are getting in trouble with their boss. They feel they should be able to handle their problems alone, but know they can’t. It makes them feel helpless, worthless. Their self-esteem has never been lower. They’re caught in a cycle of destruction and pain.
Now imagine you have the knowledge and skills to help this person overcome their challenges. You assist to relieve their intense emotional pain. You give them hope for the future. You assist to rebuild their self-esteem and lead a satisfying, empowered life.
As a Counsellor you can experience these personal victories every day. And it’s truly enriching. There is nothing more fulfilling than helping another person overcome seemingly impossible obstacles.
Student Support Centre Closure Dates
Each of the Institute Student Support Centres will be closing for a short break over the Christmas and New Year period. All Student Support Centres (except for Regional QLD, which will close on Wednesday 10th December at 12:00PM) will close on Friday 19th December (12:00PM), and re-open on Monday 5th January (09:00AM). Hopefully you will be able to a take a bit of a break too and put your studies aside for a little rest and relaxation over the festive season.
During the holiday season Head Office will be accepting completed assessments however you will need to allow a little extra time for their return. Please remember that if you are receiving Centrelink benefits whilst you are completing your course, you will need to submit your assessments in accordance with the due dates on your Course Outline.
Wishing you all a safe and happy festive season and we’ll see you in 2015.
Weighing in on the role of mindfulness in slimming down
If dieting is on your New Year agenda, it might pay to be mindful of a study suggesting there is little hard evidence that mindfulness leads to weight loss. Ohio State University researchers reviewed 19 previous studies on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based programs for weight loss. Thirteen of the studies documented weight loss among participants who practiced mindfulness, but all lacked either a measure of the change in mindfulness or a statistical analysis of the relationship between being mindful and dropping pounds. In many cases, the studies lacked both.
The single study that did quantify simultaneous weight reductions and increases in mindfulness showed no relationship between the two. Another study that documented participants’ increase in mindfulness indicated that the intervention did not affect weight loss.
Case Study: A Client Who Lost Direction
Wendy is a 54 year old woman who has two adult children and has been married for twenty-nine years. Her husband, Steve, has recently and unexpectedly informed her that he no longer loves her and that he wants a divorce. Wendy was shocked to hear this, and she now reports that she is constantly crying and feels extremely anxious. Wendy has not told anyone about this situation, although she and Steve have agreed to explain his decision to their children within the week.
In this scenario, the counsellor will be using a brief psychodynamic approach. For ease of writing, the counsellor is abbreviated to “C”.
Wendy attended eighteen appointments over an eight month period. The first six appointments were held weekly, the next ten were fortnightly, and the last two were spaced out over two months. Wendy and Steve have been married for twenty-nine years and have lived in the same area for all of that time. They have two children – Damien 24 years of age, and Amanda 26 years. Damien still lives at home with his parents.
Wendy has not yet told anyone, neither family nor friends, about her situation and becomes anxious when she considers doing this. She and Steve have agreed to tell their children within the next week, and Steve plans to move out of the family home at that time. Wendy and Steve are no longer sleeping in the same bed, although up until his recent disclosure, they had been sleeping together and kissing and hugging from time to time. Wendy’s reported anxiety/depression symptoms included: difficulty sleeping, difficulty relaxing, thinking about Steve/their marriage/the future all the time, feeling exhausted, feeling “tightness” in her chest and her throat, a loss of appetite, crying several times every day, and a loss of interest in “everything”.
In the initial appointment, Wendy reported a very distressing couple of weeks. She began to describe her situation starting at twelve months ago when Steve began attending a gym and reading personal development books. Wendy stated that at that time, Steve seemed to change, and she thought it was a part of a “mid-life crisis” that he would eventually recover from. Around the same time, Wendy confronted Steve because she felt that they weren’t communicating much and she was feeling “left out” of his new interests. At that time, Steve told Wendy that he thought they were “drifting apart”. As a result of this conversation, Wendy then made a concentrated effort to improve things – she created opportunities for them to be together, she encouraged their discussions with one another, and she shared more of herself and her feelings in their conversations. That was the last time they had discussed anything about their relationship, and Wendy thought that things had been much improved by her efforts over the last twelve months. When Steve told her over dinner a week ago that he didn’t feel that he loved her anymore and that he would like a divorce, Wendy was shocked and devastated.
C’s role in these initial stages was to listen, to assist Wendy to expand and elaborate on her story, to help her to identify her emotions, and to provide her with unconditional positive regard and a non-judgmental environment. From a psychodynamic perspective, these early sessions were also about developing a productive therapeutic relationship and trying to understand Wendy’s life from her perspective, that is, to walk in her shoes. C listened empathically and shared in the variety of emotions that Wendy reported, including shock, anger, sadness, devastation, betrayal, disappointment, frustration, disbelief, and a sense of complete lack of control. These were discussed at length, as well as the situations that had caused the emotions. As a brief psychodynamic counsellor expects that there will be around twenty appointments, or more, there was no need to hurry Wendy. C and Wendy travelled through each event and emotion as they occurred.
Wendy reported that although the sessions were difficult, she felt “relief” when she left and looked forward to her next appointment. She described an almost immediate, but minor, decrease in her anxiety symptoms, with a continuing reduction over time. After discussion, she re-introduced the use of her own relaxation strategies that she had used successfully in the past.
C encouraged Wendy to allow herself to express her feelings as much, and as often, as possible. In response to this suggestion, she began a journal and wrote in it regularly, she accepted and catered for times alone to cry, and she gradually began to discuss her situation with close and trusted family, friends, and work colleagues. This latter action required extensive discussion about her fears of disclosure and how she would manage the repercussions.
In the first three appointments, the focus was on “holding” Wendy during her crisis, and on allowing Wendy to express herself and to describe her situation in its entirety, without judgment or analysis. After this stage, however, C began reporting to Wendy any observations or thoughts about what was happening for her, as well as identifying patterns in her actions and highlighting significant steps that she had taken. For example, in session seven, C noticed that Wendy was reluctant to criticise Steve for his behaviour. C described this observation to Wendy and asked her if she had noticed it herself. Wendy had not noticed, but once it was brought to her attention, she said that she could see it clearly. She said that she still loved Steve, and that she held onto the hope that he would change his mind. She went on to describe her plan to take him back should that occur.
C empathised with the sudden and drastic change that had occurred in Wendy’s life and her plans for the future, and normalised her reaction to cling to the possibility of her life returning to the familiar and to having some feeling of control. C also explored this further, asking Wendy: how likely she thought Steve’s return was; how this event might take place; and how she thought she would respond if it occurred. In this way, Wendy’s beliefs and feelings about Steve were opened up, accepted, and their impact was acknowledged. Wendy was later able to identify the value of this belief in keeping her “together” at this point, and also said that she understood the reality that he was unlikely to return. This is an important occurrence in brief psychodynamic therapy, as it is an example of the unconscious becoming conscious.
At the commencement of the twelfth session, Wendy reported that she had a terrible week where she had cried frequently. She had spoken to Steve and had been very disappointed with his distance and coldness towards her. She described these events while laughing and speaking quickly and minimising their significance. C challenged this incongruence between Wendy’s behaviour and her words, by describing the observation to Wendy. Wendy reported that she was probably speaking fast because she had just met with a friend who would not be able to handle the truth about her devastation. Her quick speaking and laughing, Wendy suggested, was how she acted “together” when she didn’t want people to know how distressed she really was. C asked if this was also how she felt in our counselling sessions (note: from a psychodynamic perspective, often an experience a client is describing in relation to others can be a reflection of the experience they are having in the counselling room). Wendy said that she did want to improve her well-being, and so had hoped that she would be “together” when she came to counselling this time.
C asked Wendy to discuss the consequences of appearing “not together”. During this conversation, Wendy said that she felt that it was hard to be herself and that, in fact, she had not been able to be herself since Steve told her twelve months ago that they were drifting apart. From that time on, she had been acting as if everything was okay, when really she felt scared and alone. C and Wendy then talked about the possible impact of this kind of “pretending” on her marital relationship, on the counselling relationship, and on her relationships generally. They discussed where this behaviour may have been learned (Wendy felt it was from her parents’ relationship) and what had caused her to begin using it. After some long conversation about this, Wendy admitted that she had not been happy in her marriage for some time because she was afraid of losing Steve and afraid of being “left out”. It was at that point that she saw her “pretending” in her marriage as a form of self-protection.
During this conversation, Wendy also said that laughing about her problems was to make it easier for her friend to cope with the sad news. Wendy realised that she tried to make her distress easier for everyone to cope with, including Steve. She reported that she was even making it as easy as possible for Steve to leave her. She decided then that she would no longer do this, and would instead be true to her own feelings and express them whenever necessary. She stated that she would start to be herself around Steve, and everyone else. From this point on in our sessions, whenever she noticed herself laughing and talking fast about her sadness, she slowed down, took a deep breath, and connected with her true self.
Developing this kind of insight is integral to successful brief psychodynamic therapy, and it sometimes starts with the counsellor paying attention to a small but significant occurrence within the therapy room.
From session fourteen, Wendy began a level of mourning for the lost relationship and her lost future – she described the loss as if she had begun accepting that it was really over. Wendy decided to bring family photos to counselling and reflected on the great events in their marriage. Wendy also started speaking more easily about negative experiences in their marriage and described times when she had felt taken advantage of and belittled. C saw this as evidence of Wendy’s increasing acceptance of the reality that the marriage was not perfect, and also as a way for Wendy to move further away from it.
Wendy often stated “what do I do now?” C encouraged Wendy to begin to think about the things she had always wanted to do but had sacrificed when she married to have a family. Over time, Wendy made some solid decisions about her future concerning:
- full-time work
- disclosing her story to others
- travelling to an island for a holiday
- not waiting for Steve’s next move before she made hers
- making some goals for the next two years that she could achieve with or without Steve
When Wendy raised fears of her ability to accomplish the goals she had set herself, C would encourage her to reflect on the personal traits she had demonstrated in counselling, and in her ability to handle Steve’s decision. In particular, she could see her own strength, her courage, and her honesty with herself as attributes that could get her through. Gradually, Wendy became more assertive and started living her life “as if” he would not come back, even though she continued to hope that he would return.
Wendy was keen to start thinking about ending counselling in session sixteen. C and Wendy agreed to two more appointments over two months in order to reflect on her progress over the last six months and identify how she would continue to progress without counselling. At session eighteen, Wendy’s anxiety symptoms were no longer present and she was feeling more in control of her life. She continued to cry and mourn her lost relationship regularly, although the frequency of her tears had greatly reduced.
Key concepts of Brief Psychodynamic Therapy applied:
- Developing a positive therapeutic relationship, including the use of empathy
- “Holding” a client through a crisis – not physically, but psychological holding to give them a sense of stability and certainty.
- Looking at the here-and-now in the counselling relationship
- Making the unconscious, conscious and fostering insight
- The underlying belief that providing a safe environment for a client to explore their experiences will give them the opportunity to understand themselves better, change their patterns, and make sense of the situations at hand.
Case study written by Leanne Tamplin
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This fortnight's feature is...
Name: Theories of Psychotherapy and Counselling – Concepts and Cases
Author: Sharf, R.
AIPC Code: SHARF
AIPC Price: $96.30 (RRP $114.95)
This book gives you an in-depth understanding of the major theories in counselling and psychotherapy and how they are effectively applied. You’ll find interesting case summaries and therapist-client dialogues that enrich your understanding of each theory’s practical importance to the therapists’ work with clients.
Doing the “re” thing this summer
It’s that time of year again: the end-of-year project deadlines are looming, you’ve just found out when the in-laws will be visiting, and your inbox is clogged with ads flogging fares to everywhere from Madagascar to London. Yep, the holidays are coming.
Hopefully you have made plans to get away, a commitment backed up by purchased tickets and accommodation bookings. If that’s not the case or worse, you were thinking you might flag your holidays and just keep working, you could be making a serious career mistake.
Yes, we said career: to not go for needed downtime is an error of judgment which will ultimately affect you not only personally, but also in terms of your capacity for creative, productive output at work. People need regular breaks, and what’s more, we have known this for millennia; it is programmed into our language, and now science is backing up our intuitive understandings.
The importance of “re”
If there is one little word-part in the English language which attests to our psyche’s grasp of the profound need to get away from it all occasionally in order to cope better when we return, that morpheme has to be “re-“. Thousands of years before employers were mandated by laws to give employees paid time off, English was already recognising the importance of doing so with a proliferation of “re” words. Just look at the list. When we go on holiday we:
And the list goes on. A dictionary check confirms what we know about “re”: it means “again”, or “back”. The act of going on holiday, taking a break from regular activities, provides the opportunity to revitalise body and mind by distancing yourself from job-related and other stress. By immersing yourself in new routines, environments, foods, and social circles, you enhance your health and may be led to sparkling insights. A holiday affords a return – a turning back – to the essence of yourself, a level that gets buried under the busy-ness of life.
The value of doing nothing
We have known throughout history that devotion to full-time activity (such as we often see in Australia) doesn’t actually translate to greater productivity, and it certainly isn’t healthy long-term. To remain industrious and generative, our brains sometimes need to just be idle.
"Idleness” wrote Tim Kreider in the New York Times, “ is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body, and deprived of it we suffer a mental affliction as disfiguring as rickets. The space and quiet that idleness provides is a necessary condition for standing back from life and seeing it whole, for making unexpected connections and waiting for the wild summer lightning strikes of inspiration – it is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done."
Just stop for a minute: Science and the DMN
Maybe you knew this all along. But were you aware of the torrent of scientific research now finding that rested brains are better ones? Many new studies focus on the recently-discovered circuit in the brain known as the DMN, for default mode network. Challenging the 20th-century idea that idle brains are unproductive, researchers noticed that a particular set of scattered brain regions consistently became less active when someone concentrated on a mental challenge, but began to fire together in a coordinated way when people were lying in an fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scanner, letting their thoughts wander. Further studies confirmed that this wasn’t a fluke: investigations uncovered a complex circuit of disparate brain regions which came to life when people were “just” daydreaming. This network came to be called the DMN.
When we have moments of restfulness from mental challenges, the DMN fires up in the blink of an eye – literally – (including periods as short as the nano-second it takes us to blink!), and sets about its various tasks of coordinating memories, developing our understanding of human behaviour, instilling a deeper sense of ethics, and generally fostering processes which affirm our human identities. While our minds are free to wander, we make sense of what we have recently learned, reflect on unresolved tensions which surface, replay conversations, and review recent interactions in order to figure out how to do better in future. It is in these moments of introspection which we most profoundly form a sense of self: our story of who we are, our personal narrative of “I-ness”.
What do we mean by “break”?
You might say, “Well, ok. If this is all true, can’t I just take mini-breaks: say, through a walk in the park at lunch, a brief meditation period, or some other little downtime while I’m working?” Good question. And science would say not only that you can, but you should. The DMN and literally thousands of studies affirm the life- and brain-enhancing capacity of moments of downtime interwoven with regular life. But, given our human tendency to say that we “should” do something and then not get around to it, an enforced period of rest and renewal as found in the typical summer holiday break may just give that revitalising jump start to the coming year – and help ensure your continued stellar performance at work as well. So go on - this summer, do the “re” thing: relax; renew; regenerate!
Written by Dr Meg Carbonatto B.S., M.A., and Ph.D.
This article was originally published in Asteron Life’s Balance Blog. AIPC regularly contributes to Balance’s wellbeing blog category.
Hard-wired to connect: Mirror neurons and empathy
Many people have suspected for a long time that we human beings are designed to be able to experience things happening for another person: in good times or in bad. So we see a stranger clumsily bump their head on a low-hanging branch at the park, and we flinch, too. We hear that a friend has gotten some good news about a medical diagnosis, and we are genuinely happier. Yet although we have suspected this – and even have words, such as empathy and clairsentience, to describe it – it was not until 1992 that science could demonstrate how it happens, and even then it was a serendipitous discovery.
Italian researcher Giacomo Rizzolatti and his team at Parma University in Italy had implanted electrodes in the brains of several macaque monkeys to study the animals’ brain activity during different motor actions, including the clutching of food. One day while the monkeys were still wired up, a researcher reached for his own food and noticed that as he did so, the neurons begin to fire in the monkeys’ premotor cortex – the same area that showed activity when the animals made a similar hand movement (Perry, 2014; Wikipedia, 2014a). How could this be happening when the monkeys were sitting still and merely watching him?
Challenges of Families Who Experience Domestic Violence
There is no way around it; all four functions of a family are put at risk in the sad situation of family violence, and to a large degree the risk factors are interrelated. Focusing first on Function One, family formation and membership, we can comprehend how the pervasiveness of family violence in Australia (which is a microcosm of the global picture) hugely distorts the capacity of the family to function positively as a “first tribe”, or initial place of experiencing membership for children. When there is domestic violence, there are issues of power and control. When family violence is so pervasive that a woman is physically abused by her husband every nine seconds, as in the United States (Commonwealth Fund, 1993), the question arises as to how well the family unit can function.
When it is further revealed that up to ten million children in the United States between the ages of 3 and 17 have witnessed parental violence (Straus, 1991), there is the serious question of what type of “club” the children are becoming members of when they live in a violent family. In fact, research has shown that children’s presence is correlated with higher rates of domestic violence, as there is more of it in households where there are children (Romans et al, 2007).
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When you join our Premium Level membership, you’ll get all-inclusive access to over 50 hours of video workshops (presented by leading mental health experts) on-demand, 24/7.
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You’ll also get FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the Psychological First Aid course ($595.00 value). The PFA course a high quality 10-hour program developed by Mental Health Academy in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.
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Have you visited Counselling Connection yet? There are over 650 interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
The ten commandments of grief counselling
If a suicide-bereaved person does end up in your therapy rooms, what are the counselling tasks that will need to be worked through with them? Below we look at Worden’s (2005, in AIPC, 2010) general guidelines, which contribute to the effectiveness of grief counselling whatever the circumstances of grief and loss have been.
Click here to access this post and leave a comment.
Hard-wired to connect: Mirror neurons and empathy: Click to view.
6 factors for creating a mentally healthy workplace, and a five-step process for implementing them: Click to view.
10 of The Most Counter-Intuitive Psychology Findings Ever Published: Click to view.
What is it about a counselling or psychotherapy process that makes people change [VIDEO]: Click to view.
Families coping with caregiving find help in a new toolkit: Click to view.
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"Judge people not by what they are, but by what they strive to become."
~ Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.
Below are upcoming seminars available for the first semester of 2015.
BRISBANE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 07-08/03, 16-17/05
Communication Skills I: 01/02, 12/04, 14/06
Communication Skills II: 21/02, 26/04, 20/06
Counselling Therapies I: 28-29/03, 27-28/06
Counselling Therapies II: 07-08/02, 09-10/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 22/02, 31/05
Family Therapy: 22/03, 13/06
Case Management: 28/02-01/03, 23-24/05
GOLD COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 16-17/01, 17-18/04
Communication Skills I: 21/02, 15/05
Communication Skills II: 28/03, 20/06
Counselling Therapies I: 20-21/03
Counselling Therapies II: 22-23/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 12/06
Family Therapy: 20/02
Case Management: 23-24/04
SUNSHINE COAST (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 31/01-01/02, 16-17/05
Communication Skills I: 28/02, 13/06
Communication Skills II: 01/03, 14/06
Counselling Therapies I: 14-15/03, 27-28/06
Counselling Therapies II: 11-12/04
Legal & Ethical Framework: 14/02, 30/05
Family Therapy: 18/04
Case Management: 28-29/03
MELBOURNE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 10-11/01, 14-15/02, 28-29/03, 06-07/03, 23-24/04, 09-10/05, 05-06/06, 20-21/06
Communication Skills I: 17/01, 21/02, 13/03, 11/04, 16/05, 27/06
Communication Skills II: 18/01, 22/02, 14/03, 12/04, 17/05, 28/06
Counselling Therapies I: 24-25/01, 28/02-01/03, 18-19/04, 23-24/05
Counselling Therapies II: 31/01-01/02, 07-08/03, 25-26/04, 30-31/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 31/01, 14/03, 10/04, 06/06
Family Therapy: 01/02, 15/03, 08/05, 07/06
Case Management: 07-08/02, 21-22/03, 02-03/05, 13-14/06
DARWIN (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 15/03, 14/06
Communication Skills I: 22/02, 24/05
Communication Skills II: 22/02, 24/05
Counselling Therapies I: 19/04
Counselling Therapies II: 08/02, 28/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/03
Family Therapy: 17/05
Case Management: 29/03
ADELAIDE (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 14-15/02, 11-12/04, 13-14/06
Communication Skills I: 31/01, 28/03, 09/05
Communication Skills II: 01/02, 29/03, 10/05
Counselling Therapies I: 21-22/02, 02-03/05
Counselling Therapies II: 14-15/03, 30-31/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/02, 16/05
Family Therapy: 08/02, 17/05
Case Management: 21-22/03, 23-24/05
SYDNEY (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 29-30/01, 05-06/03, 30-31/03, 16-17/04, 07-08/05, 28-29/05
Communication Skills I: 26/02, 21/03, 20/04, 22/06
Communication Skills II: 27/02, 28/03, 04/05, 23/06
Counselling Therapies I: 23-24/02, 27-28/04, 29-30/06
Counselling Therapies II: 02-03/02, 19-20/03, 18-19/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 04/02, 21/04
Family Therapy: 02/03, 05/05
Case Management: 09-10/03, 22-23/05
LAUNCESTON (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 12/03, 11/06
Communication Skills I: 21/02, 23/05
Communication Skills II: 21/02, 23/05
Counselling Therapies I: 18/04
Counselling Therapies II: 05/02, 25/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 07/03
Family Therapy: 14/05
Case Management: 28/03
HOBART (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 15/03, 14/06
Communication Skills I: 22/02, 24/05
Communication Skills II: 22/02, 24/05
Counselling Therapies I: 19/04, 09/08
Counselling Therapies II: 08/02, 28/06
Legal & Ethical Framework: 01/03
Family Therapy: 03/05
Case Management: 29/03
PERTH (9.00am – 5.00pm)
The Counselling Process: 10-11/01, 28/02-01/03, 28-29/03, 25-26/04, 30-31/05, 27-28/06
Communication Skills I: 17/01, 14/02, 07/03, 02/05, 06/06
Communication Skills II: 18/01, 15/02, 08/03, 03/05, 07/06
Counselling Therapies I: 31/01-01/02, 11-12/04, 13-14/06
Counselling Therapies II: 03/01, 14/03, 09/05
Legal & Ethical Framework: 03/01, 14/03, 09/05
Family Therapy: 04/01, 15/03, 10/05
Case Management: 24-25/01, 21-22/03, 23-24/05
Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.
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