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Editor: Sandra Poletto

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Copyright: 2012 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors

Welcome to Edition 121 of Institute Inbrief. This edition's featured article explores the differences between directive vs non-directive approaches in Play Therapy, and provides an overview of Psychoanalytic and Jungian Play Therapy.
Also in this edition:
-      Listening: The Key to Effective Communication
-      Common Thinking Errors
-      Professional Development news
-      Blog and Twitter updates
-      Upcoming seminar dates
Enjoy your reading!
Join our community:
AIPC Is Determined To Make Counselling An Attainable Career For You, Just Like Over 55,000 Other Students In The Past 19 Years
We have helped over 55,000 people from 27 countries pursue their dream of assisting others with a recognised Counselling qualification.
It's been a wonderful journey over the last 19 years (the Institute was first established in 1990). And it's been a pleasure to assist so many people realise their counselling aspirations in that time.
Why are so many people delighted with their studies? Our research over the years highlights three keys points...
  1. Our courses and personnel have just ONE specific focus... Excellence in Counselling Education. We live and breathe counselling education! Nothing else gets in the way.
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To learn more, please visit Alternatively, call your nearest Institute branch on the FreeCall numbers shown below:
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Melbourne: 1800 622 489
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Directive vs Non-Directive Play Therapy
There are two major approaches to play therapy that most orientations can be categorised in to. These are either directive approaches where the therapist assumes responsibility for guidance and interpretation of the play interactions or non-directive approaches where the therapist will tend to leave the responsibility and direction of the therapeutic process to the child (Rasmussen & Cunnigham, 1995).
The main difference between directive and non-directive approaches is in the role that the therapist takes on in the process.
Psychoanalytic Play Therapy
Psychoanalytic play therapy is a directive approach where play is used to establish contact with the client, as a medium of observation, and sometimes, as something that promotes interpretive communication. Psychoanalytic therapy was originally founded and developed by Sigmund Freud in 1909 and it holds the views that "play" is a means by which the therapist and the child work toward resolution of the conflict and their common therapeutic goal (Ramirez, Flores-Torres, Kranz & Lund, 2005).
Anna Freud (1928, 1964, 1965), Margaret Lowenfeld (1935, 1970) and Melanie Klein (1961, 1987) also posited the theoretical premise for the use of play as a therapeutic tool and stipulated that the child's spontaneous play can be used as a substitute for the free association typically used within adult psychoanalysis (Geldard & Geldard, 2008).
Psychoanalytic play therapy goes beyond the immediate pain or difficulty that the child may experience through aiming to clear the way so that healthy psychosocial development can resume from where it had been halted by external trauma or invalid internal conflict. It is considered effective in helping children who have real and significant limitations come to terms with who they are by helping them develop more secure, adaptive, compensating, and self-accepting ways.
Psychoanalytic therapy involves the therapist in a role of participant and observer. The therapist allows the child to play and may at times participate with the child in play, but will also aim to shift the play on to more verbal interaction between them when necessary.
The psychoanalytic play therapist takes on the responsibility to gain an understanding and then communicate the meaning of the child's play in order to increase the child's self awareness of any pertinent conflict within themselves. Such insight is then believed to give rise to an adaptive resolution for the child as a natural response to altered meaning communicated by the therapist.
The therapist will often direct the conversation about key issues by asking open ended questions to the child. This allows the child to speak metaphorically rather than literally. This is important as the child may not be ready to articulate those thoughts into words or, due to their age, vocabulary may be quite limited making it difficult to articulate verbally many of the issues and difficulties being faced.
Jungian Play Therapy
Another approach to play therapy developed by Carl Jung in 1912 espoused the therapist as taking on an active role of facilitator with the child but not as a leader. Jung believed that the child's psyche would know where it needed to go, and therefore, it was the therapist's job to follow it there rather than direct it.
Jungian play therapy depends a great deal on the therapist to build trust with the child and sensitively discuss with the child about their play. It can be said that Jungian play therapy adopts a more non-directive approach.
Directive vs Non-Directive Approaches
One key concern over non-directive techniques is in the context of how young children will not necessarily have the cognitive skills and emotional capacity to repair and master traumatic experiences on their own (Rasmussen & Cunningham, 1995).
For example, abused children are unlikely to deal with issues underlying their sexually inappropriate behaviours unless the therapist raises these issues directly (Rasmussen & Cunningham, 1995).
As such, a more directive approach in these instances may be considered more appropriate. It has also been suggested that when the therapist places the responsibility for change completely on the child, they may give the child an additional burden which could encourage resistance in the child with the process.
As a consequence of these and other issues, there is an ongoing debate in the play therapy field over which approach is "better", non-directive or directive. The most common consensus is that there is not one right way to proceed in therapeutic work with children. In this sense, many approaches with varying degrees of directive and non-directive emphasis can work well in the right context.
For example, a therapist may choose to be quite directive with methods used in a session, and non directive with regard to the interpretation of the material which arises during a session, and then quite directive again in the issues of safety and best interests of the child.
Interestingly many therapists who call themselves non-directive or client-centred are often only non-directive in terms of what they do in a session. In this sense, while allowing the child to play how they want and with the toys they want, the therapist will   become more directive in their interpretation and analysis of the child's inner world and in the way they may choose to reflect such things back to the child (Rasmussen & Cunnigham, 1995).
1.    Botkin, D. R. (2000). Family play therapy: a creative approach to including young children in family therapy. Journal of Systematic Therapies, 19, 31-42.
2.    Geldard, K. & Geldard, D. (2008). Couselling Children. A Practical Guide (3rd ed.). London: Sage Publications
3.    Gurney, L.F. (1983). Client centred non directive play therapy. In C.E. Schaefer and K.J.O’Connor (Eds.), Handbook of Play Therapy. (pp.21-64) New York: John Wiley & Sons.
4.    Hebert, B.B. & Ballard, M.B. (2007). Children and Trauma: A post Katrina and Rita response. ASCA
5.    Landreth, G.L. (1991). Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship.
6.    Ramirez, S.Z., Flores-Torres, L.L., Kranz, P.L., & Lund, N.L. (2005). Using Axline’s eight principles of play therapy with Mexican –American children. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 329-337.
7.    Rasmussen, L.A. & Cunningham, C. (1995). Focused play therapy and non directive play therapy: can they be integrated. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 4, 1-20.
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The Institute has a list of recommended textbooks and DVDs which can add great value to your learning journey - and the good news is that you can purchase them very easily. The AIPC bookstore will give YOU:
-      Discounted prices.
-      Easy ordering method.
-      Quality guarantee!
This fortnight's feature is...
Name: Psychology: The Science of Behaviour 6th edition
Author: Carlson, Neil. R.
AIPC Price: $89.95
ISBN: 0-205-472-893
This edition continues to treat the discipline as an experimental and natural science, combining a scholarly survey of research with applications of research results to problems that confront us today. Emphasises psychology as a science.
To order this book, simply contact your nearest Student Support Centre or the AIPC Head Office (1800 657 667).
Listening: The Key to Effective Communication
Communication breakdown in relationships has reached epidemic proportions. Couples are very busy. In most cases both partners work; they have children to raise; and family and friends to attend to.
They are always in a hurry. In the Rush that has become their life, they find that they haven't got the time to listen and to respond to each other. Before they know it they have stopped communicating and perhaps have even stopped relating.
If this problem is not addressed it may result in the demise of many relationships. The thing is that most couples are not aware that their communication has broken down. They accept as normal their brief contacts over a meal or as they rush off to work. With little time for sharing they establish a communication pattern based on a lack of listening as they pay lip service to what their partner is saying.
Click here to continue reading this article...
Other articles:
Common Thinking Errors
Below is a list of descriptions that Cognitive Behavioural counsellors can use to categorise automatic thoughts. These are descriptions of the common types of faulty thinking.
Recognising these patterns and adjusting your thinking is a great way to improve your day-to-day productivity and inner motivation. Can you recognise any of these types of faulty thinking?   
All-or-nothing thinking: You see things in black & white categories. If your performance falls short of perfect, you see yourself as a total failure.
Overgeneralization: You see a single negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat.
Mental filter: You pick out a single negative detail and dwell on it exclusively so that your vision of all reality becomes darkened, like the drop of ink that discolours the entire beaker of water.
Disqualifying the positive: You reject positive experiences by insisting they "don't count" for some reason or other. You maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday experiences.
Jumping to conclusions: You make a negative interpretation even though there are no definite facts that convincingly support your conclusion.
Mind reading: You arbitrarily conclude that someone is reacting negatively to you and don't bother to check it out.
The Fortune Teller Error: You anticipate that things will turn out badly and feel convinced that your prediction is an already-established fact.
Magnification (catastrophizing) or minimization: You exaggerate the importance of things (such as your goof-up or someone else's achievement), or you inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny (your own desirable qualities or the other fellow's imperfections). This is also called the "binocular trick".
Emotional reasoning: You assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are: "I feel it, therefore it must be true".
Should statements: You try to motivate yourself with shoulds and shouldn'ts, as if you had to be whipped and punished before you could be expected to do anything. "Musts" and "oughts" are also offenders. The emotional consequence is guilt. When you direct should statements toward others, you feel anger, frustration, and resentment.
Labelling and mislabelling: This is an extreme form of overgeneralization. Instead of describing your error, you attach a negative label to yourself: "I'm a loser". When someone else's behaviour rubs you the wrong way, you attach a negative label to him, "He's a damn louse". Mislabelling involves describing an event with language that is highly coloured and emotionally loaded.
Personalization: You see yourself as the cause of some negative external event for which, in fact, you were not primarily responsible.
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Convenient Professional Development
Hundreds of counsellors, psychologists, social workers, mental health nurses and allied health professionals already access over 100 Hours of Professional Development online, for less than $1 a day. Now it's your turn.
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Begin your journey today. Click on the link below to register for a monthly or annual unlimited membership. As an unlimited member, you can access all MHA courses for less than $1 per day, and receive discounts when purchasing any video workshops:
ACA/NZAC Joint Conference
The Australian Counselling Association (ACA) and New Zealand Association of Counsellors (NZAC) will be co-hosting the "Pacific Counselling Hui 2010: Nations coming together as whanau/family in the great ANZAC tradition" conference in Auckland, New Zealand.
Dates: 30th September until 2nd October 2010
Location: Langham Hotel, Auckland
This event is highly recommended if you're a counsellor/therapist in Australia, New Zealand or neighbouring countries. 
Have you visited Counselling Connection, the Institute's Blog yet? We continually publish new and interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
Values and Conflict Resolution
Every person has distinctive viewpoints that are equally valid (from where they stand) as the other party involved in the conflict. Each person's viewpoint makes a contribution to the whole and requires consideration and respect in order to form a complete solution.
This wider view can open up the communication transaction possibilities. It may require one party to change their mind chatter that says: "For me to be right, others must be wrong" (Alexelrod, 1984).
To apply conflict resolution skills, individuals need to consider how the problem or the relationship will look over a substantial period of time. Looking at the conflict or problem in question in terms of a longer timeframe can help individuals become more realistic about the consequences of the conflict as well as exploring options to resolve the conflict (Alexelrod, 1984).
Click here to continue reading this post...
7 Ways to Improve Intimacy in Your Relationship
Good relationships don't just happen. Many people have the attitude that, "If I have to work at it, then it can't be the right relationship". This is not a true statement, any more than it's true that you don't have to work at good physical health through exercise, eating well, and stress reduction.
There are choices you can make that will not only improve your relationship, but can turn a failing relationship into a successful one.
Click here to continue reading this post...
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"You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation."
~ Plato
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
Below are some of the seminars available throughout the first semester of 2010. To register for a seminar, please contact your Student Support Centre. To access the full list of seminars for 2010, visit:
Diploma of Counselling (CDA) Timetable
Northern Territory
The Counselling Process: 18/09, 12/12
Communication Skills I: 02/10
Communication Skills II: 28/08, 27/11
Counselling Therapies I: 30 & 31/08
Counselling Therapies II: 14 & 15/08
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 03/10
Family Therapy: 14/11
Case Management: 18 & 19/12
South Australia
The Counselling Process: 24/07, 18/09, 27/11
Communication Skills I: 31/07, 16/10, 04/12
Communication Skills II: 01/08, 17/10, 05/12
Counselling Therapies I: 14 & 15/08, 06 & 07/11
Counselling Therapies II: 11 & 12/09, 20 & 21/11
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 19/09
Family Therapy: 14/11
Case Management: 30 & 31/10
The Counselling Process: 31/07, 23/08, 18/09, 29/10
Communication Skills I: 09/08, 22/09, 06/11, 11/12
Communication Skills II: 16/08, 25/09, 12/11, 16/12
Counselling Therapies I: 26 & 27/08, 01 & 02/11
Counselling Therapies II: 23 & 24/09, 01 & 02/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 09/12
Case Management: 12 & 13/08, 11 & 12/10, 06 & 07/12
Western Australia
The Counselling Process: 22/08, 16/10
Communication Skills I: 24/07, 04/09, 27/11
Communication Skills II: 25/07, 05/09, 28/11
Counselling Therapies I: 07 & 08/08, 30 & 31/10
Counselling Therapies II: 07 & 08/08, 30 & 31/10
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 18/12
Family Therapy: 19/12
Case Management: 11 & 12/09, 11 & 12/12
The Counselling Process: 26/09, 28/11
Communication Skills I: 08/08, 14/11
Communication Skills II: 03/10, 05/12
Counselling Therapies I: 28 & 29/08, 11 & 12/12
Counselling Therapies II: 25 & 26/09, 18 & 19/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 24/10
Family Therapy: 31/10
The Counselling Process: 12/09, 19/12
Communication Skills I: 03/10
Communication Skills II: 22/08, 31/10
Counselling Therapies I: 26/09
Counselling Therapies II: 29/08
The Counselling Process: 14/08, 02/10, 23/10, 27/11
Communication Skills I: 24/07, 15/08, 25/09, 24/10, 28/11
Communication Skills II: 25/07, 21/08, 26/09, 04/12
Counselling Therapies I: 31/07 & 01/08, 16 & 17/10, 11 & 12/12
Counselling Therapies II: 04 & 05/09, 20 & 21/11
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 28/08, 06/11
Family Therapy: 07/11
Case Management: 18 & 19/09, 13 & 14/11
Sunshine Coast
The Counselling Process: 02/10, 04/12
Communication Skills I: 28/08, 13/11
Communication Skills II: 19/08, 14/11
Counselling Therapies I: 11 & 12/09
Counselling Therapies II: 30 & 31/10
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 11/12
Family Therapy: 20/12
Case Management: 20/12
Gold Coast
The Counselling Process: 24/07, 08/10
Communication Skills I: 28/08, 13/11
Communication Skills II: 11/09
Counselling Therapies I: 29 & 30/10
Counselling Therapies II: 26 & 27/11
Legal & Ethical Frameworks: 10/12
Diploma of Professional Counselling (DPCD) Timetable
Northern Territory
Communication Skills I: 11/09, 11/12
Communication Skills II: 21/08, 13/11
The Counselling Process: 25/09
Counselling Therapies I: 09 & 10/11
Counselling Therapies II: 20 & 21/11
Case Management: 04 & 05/12
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 23/10
Counselling Applications: 06/11
South Australia
Communication Skills I: 31/07, 16/10, 04/12
Communication Skills II: 01/08, 17/10, 05/12
The Counselling Process: 24/07, 18/09, 27/11
Counselling Therapies I: 14 & 15/08, 06 & 07/11
Counselling Therapies II: 11 & 12/09, 20 & 21/11
Case Management: 30 & 31/10
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 25/07, 13/11
Counselling Applications: 28/11
Communication Skills I: 09/08, 22/09, 15/10, 06/11, 11/12
Communication Skills II: 16/08, 25/09, 16/10, 12/11, 16/12
The Counselling Process: 31/07, 23/08, 18/09, 08/10, 20/11, 16/12
Counselling Therapies I: 26 & 27/08, 01 & 02/11
Counselling Therapies II: 23 & 24/09, 01 & 02/12
Case Management: 12 & 13/08, 11 & 12/10, 06 & 07/12
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 20/08, 29/11
Counselling Applications: 28/08, 26/11
Western Australia
Communication Skills I: 24/07, 04/09, 27/11
Communication Skills II: 25/07, 05/09, 28/11
The Counselling Process: 22/08, 16/10
Counselling Therapies I: 07 & 08/08, 30 & 31/10
Counselling Therapies II: 07 & 08/08, 30 & 31/10
Case Management: 11 & 12/09, 11 & 12/12
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 21/08, 23/10
Counselling Applications: 24/10
Communication Skills I: 07/08, 09/10, 04/12
Communication Skills II: 18/09, 13/11
The Counselling Process: 21/08, 23/10
Counselling Therapies I: 20 & 21/11
Counselling Therapies II: 14 & 15/08, 11 & 12/12
Case Management: 16 & 17/10
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 11/09, 06/11
Counselling Applications: 27/11
Communication Skills I: 15/08, 14/11
Communication Skills II: 19/09, 05/12
The Counselling Process: 18/18, 17/10
Counselling Therapies I: 31/07 & 01/08, 11 & 12/12
Counselling Therapies II: 09 & 10/10
Case Management: 20 & 21/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 05/09, 07/11
Counselling Applications: 08/08, 28/11
Communication Skills I: 24/07, 15/08, 25/09, 24/10, 28/11
Communication Skills II: 25/07, 21/08, 26/09, 04/12
The Counselling Process: 14/08, 02/10, 23/10, 27/11
Counselling Therapies I: 31/07 & 01/08, 16 & 17/10, 11 & 12/12
Counselling Therapies II: 04 & 05/09, 20 & 21/11
Case Management: 18 & 19/09, 13 & 14/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 22/08, 30/10, 05/12
Counselling Applications: 29/08, 03/10, 31/10
Sunshine Coast
Communication Skills I: 28/08, 13/11
Communication Skills II: 29/08, 14/11
The Counselling Process: 02/10, 04/12
Counselling Therapies I: 11 & 12/09
Counselling Therapies II: 30 & 31/10
Case Management: 24 & 25/07, 27 & 28/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 16/10
Counselling Applications: 14/08, 11/12
Gold Coast
Communication Skills I: 28/08, 13/11
Communication Skills II: 11/09
The Counselling Process: 24/07, 08/10
Counselling Therapies I: 29 & 30/10
Counselling Therapies II: 26 & 27/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques: 07/08
Counselling Applications: 25/09
Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.
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