In this Issue

Hello!
Intobachelor
Intothediploma
Intonews
Intomhss
Intocounselling
Intobookstore
Intoarticles
Intodevelopment
Intoconnection
Intotwitter
Intoquotes
Intoseminars

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Editor: Sandra Poletto
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Copyright: 2012 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors

Hello!
Welcome to Edition 189 of Institute Inbrief. Psychological First Aid is an evidence-informed modular means of providing psychosocial support to individuals and families immediately after a disaster, terrorist or traumatic event, or other emergency. It consists of a set of helping actions which are systematically undertaken in order to reduce initial post-trauma distress and to support short- and long-term adaptive functioning and coping.
 
In this edition’s featured article we introduce you to the basics of PFA: its definitions, characteristics, history, goals and more.
 
Also in this edition:
  • News: Exclusive 10-hour PFA program released
  • MHSS Workshops: October/November
  • Articles and CPD updates
  • Blog and Twitter updates
  • Upcoming seminar dates
Enjoy your reading,
 
Editor.
 
 
Join our community:
 
 
 
 
 
Intobachelor
 
Become A Counsellor or Expand On Your Qualifications
With Australia’s Most Cost Effective & Flexible
 Bachelor of Counselling
 
AIPC is Australia’s largest and longest established educator of Counsellors. Over the past 22-years we’ve helped over 55,000 people from 27 countries pursue their dream of becoming a professional Counsellor.
 
The Bachelor of Counselling is a careful blend of theory and practical application. Theory is learnt through user-friendly learning materials that have been carefully designed to make your studies as accessible and conducive to learning as possible.
 
You can gain up to a full year’s academic credit (and save up to $8,700.00 with RPL) with a Diploma qualification. And with Fee-Help you don’t have to pay your subject fees upfront.
 
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  • You will be supported by a large team of highly-qualified counselling professionals.
  • Study externally with individualised personal support.
  • Attend Residential Schools in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane to hone your practical skills and network with other students.
You can learn more here: www.aipc.edu.au/degree
 
Watch our 2013 TV ad: www.aipc.net.au/tv2013
 
 
Become A Psychologist
 
Earn-While-You-Learn With Australia's
Best Value-for-Money & Flexible
Bachelor of Psychological Science
 
Psychology is one of the most versatile undergraduate courses, leading to many different career opportunities. And now there's a truly flexible way to get your qualification – with internal or external study options. It means working while you study is a realistic alternative.
 
Cost of living pressures and lifestyle choices are evolving the way we learn and Australian Institute of Psychology (AIP) is paving the way through flexible, innovative learning models:
  • Save up to $35,800 on your qualification.
  • Get started with NO MONEY DOWN with FEE-HELP.
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  • Enjoy a flexible and supportive learning experience.
  • Benefit from less onerous course entry requirements.
AIP is a registered Higher Education Provider with the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, delivering a three-year Bachelor of Psychological Science. The Bachelor of Psychological Science is accredited by the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council (APAC), the body that sets the standards of training for Psychology education in Australasia.
 
APAC accreditation requirements are uniform across all universities and providers in the country, meaning that Australian Institute of Psychology, whilst a private Higher Education Provider, is required to meet exactly the same high quality standards of training, education and support as any university provider in the country.
 
You can learn more here: www.aip.edu.au/degree
 
Watch our 2013 TV ad: www.aip.edu.au/tv2013
 
Intothediploma
 
Imagine Being Passionate About Your Work
And Assisting People Every Day Lead Better Lives
 
It’s rare these days to hear people talk about their work with true passion. You hear so many stories of people working to pay the bills; putting up with imperfect situations; and compromising on their true desires.
 
That’s why it’s always so refreshing to hear regular stories from graduates living their dream to be a Counsellor. They’re always so full of energy, enthusiasm and passion. There’s no doubt that counselling is one of the most personally rewarding and enriching professions.
 
Just imagine someone comes to you for assistance. They’re emotionally paralysed by events in their life. They can’t even see a future for themselves. They can only focus on their pain and grief. The despair is so acute it pervades their entire life. Their relationship is breaking down and heading towards a divorce. They can’t focus on work and are getting in trouble with their boss. They feel they should be able to handle their problems alone, but know they can’t. It makes them feel helpless, worthless. Their self-esteem has never been lower. They’re caught in a cycle of destruction and pain.
 
Now imagine you have the knowledge and skills to help this person overcome their challenges. You assist to relieve their intense emotional pain. You give them hope for the future. You assist to rebuild their self-esteem and lead a satisfying, empowered life.
 
As a Counsellor you can experience these personal victories every day. And it’s truly enriching. There is nothing more fulfilling than helping another person overcome seemingly impossible obstacles.
 
Learn more here: www.aipc.net.au/lz
 
Intonews
 
Psychological First Aid program released
 
Mental Health Academy – the largest provider of continuing professional development (CPD) education for the mental health industry in Australia – have just released a comprehensive program focusing on Psychological First Aid in disaster relief settings or situations of narrower-scale adversity.
 
The Psychological First Aid program is a quality 10-hour course developed by MHA in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors.
 
The program content is referenced from dozens of international, peer-reviewed publications in the areas of disaster relief, social support and critical incident counselling, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.
 
What you will learn
 
The Psychological First Aid course will equip you to successfully enter a disaster relief setting or situation of narrower-scale adversity, and offer Psychological First Aid, promoting safety, calmness, empowerment, connectedness, and hope to survivors. It assumes that you know the basics of sitting with someone in distress – that is, the counselling micro-skills – although many experienced disaster volunteers are not trained mental health professionals, and indeed, those who are will see that the skill set required to successfully offer Psychological First Aid is quite different from that needed in “regular” practice.
 
How to access the PFA program
 
The PFA program (valued at $595.00) is now included as a complimentary resource exclusively to Mental Health Academy Premium members as part of their ongoing membership benefits – which also includes unlimited, unrestricted access to over 100 specialist courses and 50+ hours of video content available on-demand, 24/7.
 
To learn more and join, visit www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium
 
Intomhss
 
Australia is suffering a Mental Health Crisis
 
Our suicide rate is now TWICE our road toll. Many suicides could possibly be averted, if only the people close to the victim were able to identify the early signs and appropriately intervene.
 
RIGHT NOW someone you care about – a family member, friend, or colleague – may be suffering in silence, and you don’t know.
 
With the right training, you can help that family member, friend or colleague.
 
Save $100 when you book your seat in an upcoming MHSS Workshop.
 
Upcoming workshops in October/November:
  • Gold Coast, QLD: 5 & 6 October
  • Launceston, TAS: 17 & 18 October
  • Narre Warren, VIC: 24 & 25 October
  • Glandore, SA: 26 & 27 October
  • East Doncaster, VIC: 7 & 8 November
  • Launceston, TAS: 14 & 15 November
  • Glandore, SA: 16 & 17 November
  • Gold Coast, QLD: 16 & 17 November
  • Gold Coast, QLD: 30 November & 1 December
Book your seat now: www.mhss.net.au/find-a-course
 
Your registration includes the 2-day facilitated workshop; a hardcopy of the MHSS Student Workbook; and access to an online dashboard where you can obtain your certificate, watch role-play videos, and much more.
 
Endorsements
 
The Mental Health Social Support workshop is approved by several industry Associations for continuing professional development. Current endorsements include:
  • Australian Association of Social Workers: 14 CPD hours
  • Australian College of Mental Health Nurses: 14 CPE Points
  • Australian College of Midwives: 14 MidPLUS Points
  • Australian Community Workers Association: 5 CPE Points
  • Australian Counselling Association: 28 OPD Points
  • Australian Physiotherapy Association: 14 CPD Hours
  • Australian Practice Nurses Association: 14 CPD Hours
  • Royal College of Nursing, Australia: 12.5 CNE Points
MHSS Specialties
 
Once you complete the MHSS Core program you can undertake the MHSS Specialty Programs:
  1. Aiding Addicts;
  2. Supporting those with Depression or Anxiety
  3. Supporting the Suicidal and Suicide Bereaved
  4. Supporting Challenged Families.
Book your seat at the next MHSS Workshop now and save $100.
 
If you have any queries, please contact Pedro Gondim on pedro@mhss.net.au.
 
Intocounselling
 
What is Psychological First Aid?
 
Imagine for a moment that you are a survivor of a powerful cyclone. Let's say that you and all your loved ones managed to get out safely, but you arrived at the community shelter with only a backpack each of essential medicines, basic documents (such as your birth certificate and passport), and a few precious photos. There was no time to grab more. After the winds receded and you were allowed to go back home, you found that you could not. The cyclone rendered your beautiful home and all your possessions into a huge pile of rubble.
 
While you are grateful that you are not experiencing bereavement and that no one was badly injured, the plain truth is that you have nowhere to live and, as you find out in the ensuing days, nowhere to work. The building which housed your family business, along with thousands of dollars of stock, was also obliterated. Suddenly, you go from being an independent, prosperous, optimistic family to a dazed, exhausted, stressed group of survivors with a bleak sense of the future. You are dependent on civil authorities and disaster relief organisations for the most basic of supplies: water, a bit of food, and a few blankets, as you try to make yourselves comfortable on the school gymnasium floor. What are your needs? How do you feel? And what, in this situation, could happen for you to bring you and your family back to a "normal" (albeit new normal) existence as soon as possible?
 
In years past, with survival assured and your family together, your "needs" would have been defined mostly in terms of practical, material aspects: getting you immediate resources of food, shelter, and clothing, for example. Disaster experts and civil planners would have begun figuring out where you could be accommodated for the many months until your home, and probably many others in the community, could be re-built. They would also be generating a plan for that re-building. But tending to your emotional, psychosocial, and spiritual needs would have been strictly your domain.
 
With the advent of disaster mental health and the identification of PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), all that changed. Psychological First Aid was developed as a principal tool to use after an emergency, disaster, or other disruptive event. It now constitutes a crucial aspect of responding to and recovering from a destructive or disruptive event.
 
Definition
 
Psychological First Aid is an evidence-informed modular means of providing psychosocial support to individuals and families immediately after a disaster, terrorist or traumatic event, or other emergency. It consists of a set of helping actions which are systematically undertaken in order to reduce initial post-trauma distress and to support short- and long-term adaptive functioning and coping. Based on the principle of “do no harm”, it is provided increasingly by members of the general population, although mental health professionals are almost always involved as well (Ruzek et al, 2007; Brymer et al, 2006; The Australian Psychological Society and the Australian Red Cross, 2010).
 
Some characteristics of PFA
 
It is common sense. Psychological First Aid includes basic common sense principles to promote normal recovery. These are actions to help people feel safe and calm, connected to others, hopeful, and empowered to help themselves, with access to physical resources, and emotional and social support. Psychological First Aid helps survivors to meet current needs; it promotes flexible coping and encourages adjustment.   It is called “first aid” because it is the first thing that helpers might think to offer disaster-affected people, and it commonly occurs in the first days, weeks, and months after a disaster or other emergency (Australian Red Cross and Australian Psychological Society, 2010).
 
It meets basic standards. The principles and actions of Psychological First Aid meet four basic standards. They are:
  • Consistent with research evidence on risk and resilience following trauma (that is, evidence-informed)
  • Applicable and practical in field settings (as opposed to a medical/health professional office somewhere)
  • Appropriate for developmental levels across the lifespan (there are different techniques available for supporting children, adolescents, and adults)
  • Culturally informed and delivered in a flexible manner, as it is often offered by members of the same community as the supported individuals (Ruzek et al, 2007; Brymer et al, 2006).
It is community-based. Psychological First Aid is community-based (as opposed to occurring within the medical profession), and the programs are usually developed in consultation with the targeted community, with support being provided by members of that community. This tends to make it culturally responsive. It is low-cost, with the chief expenses being those of developing the training and public education materials. Being culturally sensitive and low-cost makes it sustainable. Because Psychological First Aid programs incorporate the traditional coping strategies of the community for which they are developed, they tend to build on the strengths of the culture. 
 
The programs build the response capacity of people who, in a disaster, will be the family and friends of the survivors; appropriately, they will be the ones to whom survivors and those affected most often turn for psychological support. Psychological First Aid can be implemented by other than mental health professionals. The core skill is active listening, the skill at the heart of most therapeutic techniques, but also the first skill learned in any interpersonal or communication skills program.   Participants in Psychological First Aid programs report that gaining listening skill improves not only their psychological supporting, but also their personal and professional relationships and communication (Jacobs, 2007).  
 
It is designed for field delivery. Psychological First Aid can be found anywhere that survivors of trauma can be found: shelters, schools, staging areas, hospitals, and other community settings. It is designed for simple and practical administration in field settings (Ruzek et al, 2007), and even mental health practitioners involved in it acknowledge that offering support in the field is vastly different from doing it in their “regular” practice.
 
Why do we need Psychological First Aid?
 
Disasters, both natural and human-made, can strike at any time; sometimes we get a warning, and sometimes we do not. It is estimated that being involved in a significant traumatic event which causes Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) will mean a lifetime of that event continuing to be prevalent for 60.7% of men and 51.2% of women (Kessler, Sonnega, Bromet, Hughes, & Nelson, 1995). Lifetime prevalence for being exposed to a natural disaster is about 20% (Briere & Elliott, 2000; Kessler et al, 1995). In a study of 60,000 disaster survivors, between 18% and 21% indicated “severe” to “very severe” impairment. The rate of PTSD occurring in survivors of technological and human-made disasters ranges from 29% to 54%, while rates of PTSD for natural disasters are lower: between 4 and 8% (Norris, Friedman, Watson, Byrne, Diaz, & Kaniasty, 2002). Some studies have found that impairment from being in a disaster can go on for years (Briere & Elliott, 2000; Crace, Creen, Lindy, & Leonard, 1993).
 
Clearly, disasters and emergencies are shocking events whose effects can stay with us for a long time, if not a lifetime.   Ever since PTSD has been recognised as a disorder in the late 1970’s (Australian Red Cross, 2010), there has been increasing acknowledgement on the part of both the medical profession and those involved with disaster response that the psychological wellbeing of survivors and disaster-affected people needs to be tended to as well as the physical aspects. Mental health experts generally agree that early intervention can prevent more serious mental health problems later. The same mental health and disaster response experts also assert that most people are resilient enough, especially if they are given psychosocial support in the immediate aftermath of a disruptive event, that they will eventually go back to “normal” without additional, specialised mental health intervention, such as long-term counselling or psychiatric services (Norris, Friedman, Watson, Byrne, Diaz, & Kaniasty, 2002; Australian Red Cross, 2010).
 
Yet despite a widely recognised need to provide immediate help for trauma survivors, there is little research consensus about how best to assist individuals during those first hours and days after their experiences (Ruzek et al, 2007). The field of disaster relief has continued to be plagued by difficulties investigating the question of, “What intervention is best?” Emergency environments are chaotic by nature; thus, it is rarely possible to conduct the controlled research and evaluation that would clearly identify which interventions best offer psychosocial support after a disaster. Nevertheless, Psychological First Aid has wide popularity in increasing numbers of countries as the most efficacious method of assisting survivors in those first crucial hours and days after an event. Let us look at the events which have brought Psychological First Aid to this pre-eminent position.
 
The history and evolution of Psychological First Aid
 
As early as 1922, the War Office in the United States had recognised the need for support of its military personnel who were experiencing combat stress. Those setting up the programs for the soldiers acknowledged the need for the same five elements which have grown into today’s Psychological First Aid. That is, they appreciated that the soldiers needed to be made safe, calmed, empowered, connected to loved ones, and instilled with hope. Nevertheless, the main criterion for success of the interventions was not relief of stress symptoms. Rather, it was whether the soldier could be made functional again, and especially, whether he could return to active duty. The War Office program was called BICEPS, because it included the elements of “brevity, immediacy, centrality, expectancy, proximity, and simplicity” (Main, 1989).
 
The term Psychological First Aid was first coined by Drayer, Cameron, Woodward, and Glass (1954) in a manuscript they wrote for the American Psychiatric Association on request of the U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration. The purpose of the manuscript was to provide guidance for managing in the aftermath of community disasters. By the 1970s the principles and foundations of crisis (psychological) intervention were being utilised in disaster work with adults (Raphael, 1977; Farberow, 1978) and in 1988, similar interventions were being implemented with children (Pynoos and Nader, 1988). By 1990 emergency organisations such as the Danish Red Cross were applying the principles as a preferred model for early intervention following exposure to a traumatic event.   The principles have continued to gain widespread international acceptance, culminating in their inclusion in international guidelines (Knudsen, Hogsted, & Berliner, 1997).   
 
Along with the development of the principles that we now know as Psychological First Aid, there has been a form of early mental health intervention called Critical Incident Stress Debriefing, which became popular in the mid-1980s. It is a psychological treatment intended to reduce the potential for psychological un-wellness that arises after exposure to trauma, and has generally consisted of “one off” sessions of a procedure in which survivors, disaster-affected others, and even first responders are able to “debrief” or talk about the trauma that they have just experienced. A structured group model designed to explore facts, thoughts, reactions, and coping strategies, its origins can be traced to efforts aimed at maintaining group morale and reducing psychiatric distress amongst soldiers immediately after combat (Mitchell, 1997).
 
Debriefing has been routinely offered in a number of settings on an international scale, including for victims of mass disasters, or individuals involved in traumatic incidents in the workplace, such as police officers. It is founded on the belief that promptly talking through traumatic experiences will aid people in recovering from potential psychological damage. It is usually offered on a voluntary basis, but there are groups for whom it is compulsory following trauma, including bank employees in both the UK and Australia and some UK police forces.
 
The assumption is that debriefing can prevent the onset of PTSD, and some have suggested that it might also prevent employees who developed PTSD after a critically traumatic incident from suing their employers (The Professional Counsellor, 2011). A typical debriefing process takes place in a session two to three days after the trauma. Although initially designed to be used in groups, debriefing has also been used on individuals, couples and families (Carlier, Voerman & Gersons, 2000; Rose, Bisson, Churchill & Wessly, 2009).
 
Psychological First Aid vs Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
 
Because crisis intervention strategies have become one of the most widely used time-limited modalities of treatment, they have also – inevitably – come under scientific scrutiny for their effectiveness.  
 
What the research says about Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
 
A number of reviews of the post-trauma intervention literature have concluded that there is no evidence that Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) prevents long-term negative outcomes (Litz et al., 2002; Bisson, 2003; McNally, Bryant, & Ehlers, 2003; Watson et al., 2003). For example, in a recent study of a group debriefing intervention with military personnel on active duty, researchers found that soldiers rated their satisfaction with CISD as high and mental health outcomes at follow-up did not worsen as a result of CISD.
 
There were no differences, however, among the subjects who received CISD, those who received stress education, and those who only completed a survey. Researchers were measuring behavioural health outcomes (including PTSD), depression, general well-being, aggressive behavior, marital satisfaction, perceived organisational support, and morale. Heart rate and blood pressure readings before and after the sessions did not indicate a change in physiological stress, and subjective ratings of distress did not change pre to post-session (Litz et al, 2002). Two studies of CISD reported a higher incidence of negative outcomes in those who received CISD than in those who did not receive an intervention (Mayou, Ehlers, & Hobbs, 2000). 
 
The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services did an analysis of thousands of studies (a meta-analysis) in 2007, and – based on 34 studies that met its criteria for inclusion in the analysis – concluded that there was no effect of debriefing compared to no intervention during the first year after accidents and crises (Kornor, Winje, Ekeberg, Johansen, Weisaeth, & Ormstad, 2007). 
 
There may be many possible explanations for why studies on CISD have resulted in negative or neutral findings, such as that the one-off intervention is too brief, or that it may increase anxiety. Nonetheless, many mental health experts are concerned that any intervention focusing on emotional processing right after a traumatic event may be harmful. Certainly, there has always been the controversy with debriefing: to whom should it be offered: survivors alone? Affected families? The responders who witnessed terrible sights in the course of rescuing people? And should people be made to talk about their experiences, or merely invited? 
 
Accordingly, the general conclusion of those working in the field of mental health disaster response is that more research is needed before CISD should be routinely recommended in the immediate aftermath of a disaster (Watson, 2004). This seems especially sensible in view of how chaotic a post-trauma environment is, and how crucial it is to attend to pragmatic material needs, cultural and bereavement issues, and also the widely disparate needs of survivors as they go through recovery (Watson et al, 2002). 
 
How Psychological First Aid is different from CISD
 
Psychological First Aid takes a very different tack from CISD, being very practically focused, and operating with the assumption that most people are resilient, and will recover well from a traumatic event if they are given basic support. In distinguishing Psychological First Aid from Critical Incident Stress Debriefing, it is important to note that Psychological First Aid is not about debriefing. It is not about minimally-trained field volunteers trying to obtain details of traumatic experiences and losses from survivors or responders, especially because such volunteers may not know how to respond to people making traumatic disclosures.
 
Because Psychological First Aid is often offered by community members whose main occupation is other than mental health, it is not about treating a “patient” or about labelling or diagnosing a person. It is not counselling, and as stated above, it is not something that only professionals, such as psychologists, counsellors, or psychiatrists, do. Similarly, it is not something that everyone affected by an emergency will need. 
 
What Psychological First Aid promotes
 
Because disasters differ greatly from one another – as do the psychological reactions of the individuals, families, and communities who experience them – any model for intervention needs to be flexible, and adaptable to specific circumstances. The five principles which we know today as the framework for Psychological First Aid were first outlined by Hobfoll and his colleagues (2007), who declared that any psychosocial support in the hours and days following an emergency or mass catastrophe needed to promote:
  1. safety
  2. calmness
  3. self-efficacy (self-empowerment)
  4. connectedness
  5. hope
These elements have provided a skeleton for developing the public health approach to disaster response that has been incorporated into a number of emerging Psychological First Aid programs (Benedek & Fullerton, 2007).
 
What are the aims of Psychological First Aid?
 
You may have heard the question of whether it is better to give someone a fish, or to teach them how to fish. Psychological First Aid does both in a way, but it is clear that exceedingly hungry people need to eat a bit of fish before they can focus on fishing lessons. So PFA addresses practical concerns first: the distribution of food, water, and shelter, to survivors, and the reconnecting of them to loved ones and others who have also been displaced (the fish). But along with identifying the needs of people caught up in an emergency, PFA attempts to build capacity in the disaster-affected, helping people find within themselves the strengths and abilities to meet their own needs (the fishing lesson).
 
This is a central impetus in providing psychosocial support, because the resilience literature, such as positive psychology, has shown that merely having a belief in one's ability to cope helps one to do so better. That is, people who are optimistic and who have some trust in the essential benevolence and predictability of life, or who show other hopeful tendencies, do better after experiencing a community disaster than those who believe that life is dangerous or inherently harmful, and not to be trusted (Seligman, 1992, Australian Red Cross and Australian Psychological Society, 2010; Carbonatto, 2009).
 
Expanding out the five core principles of PFA, we can identify the goals of Psychological First Aid as including efforts to:
  • "calm people
  • reduce distress
  • make people feel safe and secure
  • identify and assist with current needs
  • establish human connection
  • facilitate people's social support
  • help people understand the disaster and its context
  • help people identify own strengths and abilities to cope
  • foster belief in people's ability to cope
  • give hope
  • assist with early screening for people needing further or specialised help
  • promote adaptive functioning
  • get people through the first period of high intensity and uncertainty
  • set people up to be able to naturally recover from an event
  • reduce the chance of post traumatic stress disorder."
    (Australian Red Cross and Australian Psychological Society, 2010, p 11).
This article was adapted from the “Psychological First Aid” Mental Health Academy CPD course. This short course will equip you to successfully enter a disaster relief setting or situation of narrower-scale adversity, and offer Psychological First Aid, promoting safety, calmness, empowerment, connectedness, and hope to survivors.

For more information, visit
www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium
 
References:
 
Australian Red Cross and Australian Psychological Society. (2010). Psychological First Aid: An Australian guide. Victoria, Australia.
 
Benedek, D. M., & Fullerton, C. S. (2007). Translating five essential elements into programs and practice. Psychiatry, 70(4), 345-349. In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations.   Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Bisson, J.I. (2003). Single-session early psychological interventions following traumatic events. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 481–499. In Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49.
 
Briere, J., & Elliott, D. (2000). Prevalence, characteristics and long-term sequelae of natural disaster exposure in the general population. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 661-679. doi: 10.1023/A:100781430136, in Warchal, J.R., & L.B. Graham. Promoting positive adaptation in adult survivors of natural disasters.   Adultspan Journal, Spring 2011 10(1) 34 – 51.
 
Brymer, M.L. , Jacobs, A., Lane, C., Pynoos, R., Ruzek, J., Steinberg, A., Vernberg, E., & Watson, P. Psychological First Aid: Field operations guide, 2nd ed. (2006). United States: National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD.
 
Carlier, I.V.E., Voerman, A.E. & Gersons, B.P.R. (2000). The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatised police officers. The Journal of Medical Psychology, 73, 87-98. In The professional counsellor (2011). Critical incident counselling. The professional counsellor, 2 (2011), 1 – 9. Copyright: The Mental Health Academy Pty, Ltd.
 
Drayer, C. S., Cameron, D. C., Woodward, W. D., & Glass, A. J. (1954). Psychological first aid in community disasters. Journal of the American Medical Association, 156(1), 36-41. In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations. Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Farberow, N. L. (1978). Field manual for human service workers in major disasters (DHHS Publication No. ADM 78-537). Rockville, MD: NIMH. In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations.   Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Hobfoll, S. E., Watson, P., Bell, C. C., Bryant, R. A., Brymer, M. J., Friedman, M. J., et al. (2007). Five essential elements of immediate and mid-term mass trauma intervention: Empirical evidence. Psychiatry, 70(4), 283-315. In Jacobs, G.A. (2007). Development and maturation of humanitarian psychology. American psychologist, Nov 2007, 932 – 941.
 
Kessler, R. C, Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Co-morbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048-1060., in Warchal, J.R., & L.B. Graham. Promoting positive adaptation in adult survivors of natural disasters.   Adultspan Journal, Spring 2011 10(1) 34 – 51.
 
Kornor, H., Winje, D., Ekeberg, O., Johansen,K., Weisaeth, L., Ormstad, S.S., et al (2007). Psychosocial interventions after crises and accidents. English summary. Oslo: Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services.   In Weisaeth, L., Dyb, G., & Heir, T. (2007). Disaster medicine and mental health: Who, how, when of international and national disasters. Psychiatry, 70 (4), 337 – 344.
 
Knudsen, L., Hogsted, R., & Berliner, P. (1997). Psychological first aid and human support. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Red Cross. . In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations.   Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Litz, B.T., Gray, M.J., Bryant, R.A., & Adler, A.B. (2002). Early intervention for trauma: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 112–134. In Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49. 
 
Main, T. (1989). The ailment and other psychoanalytic essays. London: Free Association Press. In Weisaeth, L., Dyb, G., & Heir, T. (2007). Disaster medicine and mental health: Who, how, when of international and national disasters. Psychiatry, 70 (4), 337 – 344.
 
Mayou, R., Ehlers, A., & Hobbs, M. (2000). Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims: Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 589–593. In Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49. 
 
McNally, R., Bryant, R., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from posttraumatic stress? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4, 45–79. In Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49. 
 
Mitchell, J.T., Everly, G.S. (1997).The scientific evidence for critical incident stress management. Journal of Emergency Medical Service , 22, 86–93. In The professional counsellor (2011). Critical incident counselling. The professional counsellor, 2 (2011), 1 – 9. Copyright:   The Mental Health Academy Pty, Ltd.
 
Norris, F.H., Friedman, M.J., Watson, P.J., Byrne, C.M., Diaz, E., & Kaniasty, K. (2002). 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981-2001. Psychiatry, 65, 207-239. doi:10.1521/psyc.65.3.207.20173, in Warchal, J.R., & L.B. Graham. Promoting positive adaptation in adult survivors of natural disasters.   Adultspan Journal, Spring 2011 10(1), 34 – 51.
 
Pynoos, R. S., & Nader, K. (1988). Psychological first aid and treatment approaches to children exposed to community violence: research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1(4), 445-473. In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations.   Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Raphael, B. (1977). The Granville train disaster: Psychological needs and their management. Medical Journal of Australia, 9, 303-305. In Forbes, D., Lewis, V., Varker, T., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Wade, D.J., Ruzek, J.I., Watson, P., Bryant, R.A., & Creamer, M. (2011). Psychological First Aid Following Trauma: Implementation and Evaluation Framework for High-Risk Organizations. Psychiatry, 74(3) Fall 2011, 224.
 
Rose, S.C., Bisson, J., Churchill, R. & Wessly, S. (2009). Psychological debriefing for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder. The Cochrane Collaboration: Wiley Publishers. In The professional counsellor (2011). Critical incident counselling. The professional counsellor, 2 (2011), 1 – 9. Copyright: Mental Health Academy Pty, Ltd.
 
Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49.
 
Watson, P.J., Friedman, M.J., Gibson, L.E., Ruzek, J.I., Norris, F.H., & Ritchie, E.C. (2003). Early intervention for trauma-related problems. Review of Psychiatry,22, 97–124. In Ruzek, J., Brymer, M., Jacobs, A.K., Layne, C., Vernberg, E.M., & Watson, P.J. (2007). Psychological First Aid. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 29 (1), January, 2007, 17 – 49.
 
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Join our community:
 
 
 
 
 
Intobookstore
 
The Institute has a list of recommended textbooks and DVDs that can add great value to your learning journey - and the good news is that you can purchase them very easily. The AIPC bookstore will give you discounted prices, an easy ordering method and quality guarantee!
 
This fortnight's feature is...
 
Name: Theory and Practice of Group Counselling, 8th edition
Authors: Corey, Gerald
AIPC Code: COREY3
AIPC Price: $111.35 (RRP $132.95)
ISBN: 978-084-003-3864
 
With this text, you will gain the knowledge and skills for effective group counselling and leadership and learn key theoretical approaches to group leadership and how to successfully apply each in practice.
 
To order this book, contact your Student Support Centre or the AIPC Head Office (1800 657 667).
 
Intoarticles
 
Classical Bases of Transference Love
 
This article seeks to examine the characteristics of the psychoanalytic transference. It asks the question: “What are some key links between the transference and love?” The first section traces Freud’s developing ideas on the topic of the transference love. This is in order to seek evidence as to how the transference love might be grounded. Since transference love is a known characteristic of the transference, the second section examines the character of the mythical character of the demi-god Love.
 
It conducts this examination through an analysis of relevant parts of Plato’s Symposium, and in particular, the speech of Diotima. This is because the Symposium is a series of encomium speeches about the nature of the mythical character of Love, an encomium being a rhetorical speech in the form of a song of praise. It is arguable that the Symposium discourse is nested within the discourse of transference. The paper will suggest that transference love has many of the characteristics of the mythical Love, except that it lacks the certainty of public recognition. Transference love is less adaptable, less concerned about consequences and more blind in its over-valuation of the beloved.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
 
Case Study: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
 
In a previous article we reviewed a range of treatments that are used to help clients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this edition we showcase the case study of Darcy [fictional name], who worked with a psychologist to address the symptoms and history of her OCD.
 
Marian, a psychologist who specialised in anxiety disorders, closed the file and put it into the filing cabinet with a smile on her face. This time she had the satisfaction of filing it into the “Work Completed” files, for she had just today celebrated the final session with a very long-term client: Darcy Dawson. They’d come through a lot together, Darcy and Marian, during the twelve years of Darcy’s treatment for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and they had had a particularly strong therapeutic alliance.
 
Marian reflected on the symptoms and history which had brought Darcy into her practice.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
More articles: www.aipc.net.au/articles
 
Intodevelopment
 
Mental Health Academy – First to Knowledge in Mental Health
 
Get unlimited access to over 50 hours of CPD video workshops and over 100 specialist courses, for just $39/month or $349/year. Plus FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the 10-hour Psychological First Aid program ($595.00 value).
 
We want you to experience unlimited, unrestricted access to the largest repository of professional development programs available anywhere in the country.
 
When you join our Premium Level membership, you’ll get all-inclusive access to over 50 hours of video workshops (presented by leading mental health experts) on-demand, 24/7.
 
You’ll also get access to over 100 specialist courses exploring a huge range of topics, including counselling interventions, communications skills, conflict, child development, mental health disorders, stress and trauma, relationships, ethics, reflective practice, plus much more. 
 
You’ll also get FREE and EXCLUSIVE access to the Psychological First Aid course ($595.00 value). The PFA course a high quality 10-hour program developed by Mental Health Academy in partnership with the Australian Institute of Psychology and the Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors, and framed around the internationally accepted principals of the NCTSN Field Operations Guide.
 
Benefits of becoming a premium member:
  • FREE and exclusive PFA course ($595.00 value)
  • Over 100 specialist courses to choose from
  • Over 50 hours of video learning on-demand
  • CPD endorsed by leading industry associations
  • Videos presented by international experts
  • New programs released every month
  • Huge range of topics and modalities
  • Online, 24/7 access
Upcoming programs:
  • Understanding Obsessives
  • OCD and OCPD Case Studies
  • Mindfulness in Therapeutic Practice
  • Managing Chronic Pain
  • Treating Depression in the Older Client
  • A Constructive-Developmental Approach in Therapy: Case Studies
  • Sitting with Shadow: Case Studies
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy
  • Emotionally Focused Therapy
  • Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy
  • Primary Issues in Counselling the Disabled
Learn more and join today: www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium
 
Intoconnection
 
Have you visited the Counselling Connection Blog yet? There are over 600 interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
 
Walk for Awareness
 
Walk for Awareness is designed to support & highlight charities that are working directly with communities, who are implementing strategies to raise awareness of depression and mental illness, while supporting the preservation of life.
 
This year, M.A.F. are supporting “Mates In Construction”, “GROW” whom are on the front line implementing those strategies towards improved mental help.
 
Click here to read the full post.
 
AIPC on YouTube
 
Want to watch personal and professional development videos, student interviews, conversations with employers of AIPC graduates, and inspirational stories from current and past students? Now you can do that, and much more, with the new AIPC YouTube Channel.
 
Click here to read the full post.
 
Get new posts delivered by email! Visit our FeedBurner subscription page and click the link on the subscription box.
 
 
Intotwitter
 
Follow us on Twitter and get the latest and greatest in counselling news. To follow, visit http://twitter.com/counsellingnews and click "Follow".
 
Featured Tweets
 
Total health care: http://bit.ly/18mg5EF
 
AIPC Article Library | Treating Substance Addiction: http://bit.ly/17YJioh
 
DSM-5 and the Family Therapist: First-order Change in a New Millennium: http://bit.ly/17YJiEZ
 
Watching Others Can Help Ease a Phobia: http://bit.ly/1b14Dib
 
CBT Technique Aids Treatment of OCD-Related Depression: http://bit.ly/1dFyXjr
 
New video lecture at our YouTube channel: The Rise of Depression in a Winner/Loser World: http://bit.ly/1bCK9Px
 
AIPC Article Library | Family Therapy with Addictions: http://bit.ly/167HsTJ
 
Note that you need a Twitter profile to follow a list. If you do not have one yet, visit http://twitter.com to create a free profile today!
 
Tweet Count: 4,254
Follower Count: 6,102
 
Intoquotes
 
"Challenges are what make life interesting and overcoming them is what makes life meaningful."
 
~ Joshua J. Marine
 
Intoseminars
 
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
 
Not sure if you need to attend Seminars? Click here for information on Practical Assessments.
 
Below are upcoming seminars available during the remainder of 2013.
 
To register for a seminar, please contact your Student Support Centre.
 
BRISBANE
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 12/10, 07/12
Communication Skills II - 28/09, 23/11
The Counselling Process - 30/11-01/12
Counselling Therapies I - 16-17/11
Counselling Therapies II - 19-20/10, 14-15/12
Case Management - 02-03/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 06/10
Counselling Applications - 09/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 30/11-01/12
Communication Skills I - 12/10, 07/12
Communication Skills II - 28/09, 23/11
Counselling Therapies I - 16-17/11
Counselling Therapies II - 19-20/10, 14-15/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 24/11
Family Therapy - 29/09, 08/12
 
GOLD COAST
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 16/11
Communication Skills II - 13/12
The Counselling Process - 25-26/10, 07/12
Counselling Therapies I - 27-28/09
Counselling Therapies II - 22-23/11
Case Management - 18-19/10
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 25-26/10, 07/12
Communication Skills I - 16/11
Communication Skills II - 13/12
Counselling Therapies I - 27-28/09
Counselling Therapies II - 22-23/11
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 29/11
Case Management - 18-19/10
 
MELBOURNE
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 28/09, 12/10, 23/11, 14/12
Communication Skills II - 13/10, 24/11, 15/12
The Counselling Process - 05-06/10, 16-17/11 06-07/12
Counselling Therapies I - 19-20/10, 30/11-01/12
Counselling Therapies II - 26-27/10, 07-08/12
Case Management - 04-05/10, 14-15/12
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 09/11
Counselling Applications - 29/09, 10/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 05-06/10, 16-17/11 06-07/12
Communication Skills I - 28/09, 12/10, 23/11, 14/12
Communication Skills II - 13/10, 24/11, 15/12
Counselling Therapies I - 19-20/10, 30/11-01/12
Counselling Therapies II - 26-27/10, 07-08/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 02/11
Family Therapy - 08/11
Case Management - 04-05/10, 14-15/12
 
NORTHERN TERRITORY
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 02/11
Communication Skills II - 07/11, 30/11
The Counselling Process - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Counselling Therapies I - 26-27/10
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Case Management - 23-24/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 12/10
Counselling Applications - 09/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Communication Skills I - 02/11
Communication Skills II - 07/11, 30/11
Counselling Therapies I - 26-27/10
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 19/10
Family Therapy - 16/11
Counselling Applications - 09/11
 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 26/10, 14/12
Communication Skills II - 27/10, 15/12
The Counselling Process - 19-20/10, 30/11-01/12
Counselling Therapies II - 23-24/11
Case Management - 07-08/12
Counselling Applications - 12/10
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 19-20/10, 30/11-01/12
Communication Skills I - 26/10, 14/12
Communication Skills II - 27/10, 15/12
Counselling Therapies II - 23-24/11
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 13/10
Case Management - 07-08/12
 
SUNSHINE COAST
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 16/11
Communication Skills II - 17/11
Counselling Therapies II - 19-20/10
Case Management - 28-29/09
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 12/10
Counselling Applications - 02/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 16/11
Communication Skills II - 17/11
Counselling Therapies II - 19-20/10
Case Management - 28-29/09
 
SYDNEY
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 18/10, 09/11, 13/12
Communication Skills II - 19/10, 18/11, 16/12
The Counselling Process - 03-04/10, 14-15/11, 06-07/12
Counselling Therapies I - 22-23/11
Counselling Therapies II - 08-09/10, 09-10/12
Case Management - 14-15/10, 17-18/12
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 25/11
Counselling Applications - 26/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 03-04/10, 14-15/11, 06-07/12
Communication Skills I - 18/10, 09/11, 13/12
Communication Skills II - 19/10, 18/11, 16/12
Counselling Therapies I - 22-23/11
Counselling Therapies II - 08-09/10, 09-10/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 27/09, 27/11
Family Therapy - 28/09, 12/12
Case Management - 14-15/10, 17-18/12
 
TASMANIA
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 03/11
Communication Skills II - 01/12
The Counselling Process - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Counselling Therapies I - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Case Management - 23-24/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 13/10
Counselling Applications - 10/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Communication Skills I - 03/11
Communication Skills II - 01/12
Counselling Therapies I - 28-29/09, 07-08/12
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 20/10
Family Therapy - 17/11
Case Management - 23-24/11
 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
 
DPCD Timetable
 
Communication Skills I - 26/10, 07/12
Communication Skills II - 27/10, 08/12
The Counselling Process - 05-06/10, 02-03/11
Counselling Therapies I - 28-29/09, 23-24/11
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Case Management - 09-10/11
Advanced Counselling Techniques - 12/10
Counselling Applications - 16/11
 
CDA/B Timetable
 
The Counselling Process - 05-06/10, 02-03/11
Communication Skills I - 26/10, 07/12
Communication Skills II - 27/10, 08/12
Counselling Therapies I - 28-29/09, 23-24/11
Counselling Therapies II - 14-15/12
Legal & Ethical Frameworks - 13/10
Family Therapy - 17/11
Case Management - 09-10/11
 
Important Note: Advertising of the dates above does not guarantee availability of places in the seminar. Please check availability with the respective Student Support Centre.
 
 
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