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Copyright: 2012 Australian Institute of Professional Counsellors
WELCOME  

Welcome to Edition 255 of Institute Inbrief! If you are a mental health helper of almost any stripe: social worker, counsellor, psychologist, psychotherapist, or even psychiatrist, it would be surprising for you not to have heard of CBT (Cognitive Behaviour Therapy), such is its fame in the mental health professions. In this edition’s featured article we’ll look at CBT’s principles, strategies and techniques
 
Also in this edition:
  • Motivational Interviewing and Anxiety
  • Self-help Strategies for OCD and OCPD
  • Post-disaster Resilience: Who Survives Better?
  • Social Media Updates & Much More!
Enjoy your reading!
 
Editor.
 
 
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INTOstudies  
 
Bachelor and Master of Counselling
 
Semester 3, 2016 Intake – NOW OPEN!
 
Our Semester 3, 2016 intake for our Bachelor and Master of Counselling is now open.
 
Places are strictly limited in both courses, so please express your interest early.
 
The programs are all government Fee-Help approved, so you can learn now and pay later.
 
Some unique features of the programs include:
  • Study externally from anywhere in Australia, even overseas
  • Residential Schools in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane
  • [Bachelor] Save thousands on your qualification
  • [Master] Receive up to 6-months credit for prior Counselling studies
  • Start with just 1 subject
  • Online learning portal with access to all study materials, readings and video lectures
  • Learn in a friendly, small group environment.
*Residential Schools are delivered in Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane for the Bachelor of Counselling.
 
You can learn more about the programs here:
 
Bachelor of Counselling: www.aipc.net.au/degree
 
 
As applications exceed available places we urge you to submit your obligation free expression of interest now.
 
Diploma of Counselling
 
It’s time to start loving what you do!
 
We’ve been training qualified Counsellors for over 24 years. Overwhelmingly, the number one reason people cite as why they became a Counsellor – to start loving what they do. They were stuck in a rut doing something they had no passion for, and it was dragging them down.
 
If you want a deeper understanding of yourself, and to use that knowledge to assist others overcome their challenges and start enjoying life again – then counselling is likely for you.
 
Too often we get drawn into a career that offers little personal satisfaction. Counsellors are passionate about the important work they do. They’re often someone that friends and family naturally come to for assistance. And they get immense personal reward helping others.
 
If that sounds like you, then it’s time to start pursuing your passion:
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You can learn more here: www.aipc.net.au/course_dippro.php
 
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INTOnews  
 
2016 Mental Health Super Summit: Registrations Close in 1 Week
 
AIPC is proudly sponsoring one of the most exciting educational events ever held in Australia: the 2016 Mental Health Super Summit.
 
If you work in mental health, this really is a must-not miss event.
 
This unique conference – where you choose what you pay to attend and all proceeds are donated to charity – provides you with access to 20 hours of learning presented by internationally-renowned experts. And everything is accessible online!
 
Here's a snapshot of the 2016 Mental Health Super Summit:
  • You choose how much you pay to attend – from just $50
  • All event proceeds are donated to Act for Kids and applied to integrative therapy for children who have experienced abuse or neglect across Australia
  • Presenters from Harvard Medical School, University of Oxford, Pennsylvania State University, University of Michigan, Thomas Jefferson University, University of Melbourne, Monash University, University of Queensland, Bond University, Black Dog Institute, and many more leading institutions
  • 20 real-time webinar sessions (available to watch on-demand after)
  • Interact with presenters through live Q&A sessions
  • Cutting-edge research in neuroscience, evidence-based therapies, supervision, psychopharmacology, and much more!
This is a rare opportunity to learn from some of the most influential leaders in mental health of modern times, and help raise much need funds for charity. 
 
This event will not be repeated. So please act now.
 
You can learn more and register here: www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/summit
INTOcounselling  
 
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Principles and Practices
 
If you are a mental health helper of almost any stripe: social worker, counsellor, psychologist, psychotherapist, or even psychiatrist, it would be surprising for you not to have heard of CBT (Cognitive Behaviour Therapy), such is its fame in the mental health professions. We can broadly define it as a combination of cognitive and behavioural therapeutic approaches used to help clients modify limiting, maladaptive thoughts and behaviours, ones that are often inconsistent with consensual reality (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). The basic premise of CBT is that emotions are difficult to change directly, so CBT targets emotions by changing the thoughts and behaviours that are contributing to the distressing emotions.
 
Generally considered a short-term therapy, CBT often consists of about 8 to 12 sessions in which client and therapist work collaboratively to identify problem thoughts and behaviours. The therapist then uses the troublesome thoughts and behaviours to furnish the client with tools and techniques to alter the way they think, feel, and behave in a given situation. The CBT-generated skill set enables the individual to be aware of thoughts and emotions; to identify how situations, thoughts, and behaviours influence emotions; and to improve feelings by changing dysfunctional thoughts and behaviours. Some have noted that “CBT” is an umbrella term and that there are a variety of CBT-based techniques used for different populations and different presenting issues.
 
The underlying principle of therapy, however, remains the same: there is collaborative CBT skill acquisition and “homework” in between sessions (components which set CBT apart from typical “talk” therapies) (Schmied & Tully, 2009; Gasper, n.d.; Grazebrook, Garland & the Board of BABCP, 2005).
 
In the beginning…
 
The work of Albert Ellis (1962) gave major impetus to the development of cognitive behaviour therapies through his Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), originally called Rational Emotive Therapy, or RET. Both Ellis and the founder of Cognitive Therapy, Aaron Beck, believed that people can consciously adopt reason. Both viewed the client’s underlying assumptions as targets of intervention. Both rejected their analytic training and replaced passive listening with active, direct dialogues with clients.
 
The ABC Paradigm
 
Ellis’ ABC Paradigm holds that when a person experiences a highly-charged emotional event – called a “C” or Consequent Emotion – following a significant activating event, or “A”, A does not cause C, although it may seem to. In fact, what happens is that emotional consequences are mostly created by “B”, the individual’s belief system. When an undesirable emotional consequence occurs, such as profound anxiety, it usually can be traced to the person’s irrational beliefs. When these beliefs are effectively disputed (at “D”) by challenging them rationally and behaviourally, the disturbed consequences are reduced. Because REBT has viewed cognition and emotion integratively (with thought, feeling, desires, and action interacting with each other), it is a comprehensive cognitive-affective behavioural theory and practice of psychotherapy (Ellis, 1995). But where Ellis confronted and persuaded clients that the philosophies they lived by were unrealistic, Beck regarded the client as a colleague who would research verifiable reality (Beck & Weishaar, 1995).
 
Beck’s collaborative empiricism
 
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy is based on a theory of personality which holds that how one thinks greatly determines how one feels and behaves. As noted, it is not just a therapy of collaborative empirical investigation, but also reality testing and problem solving between therapist and client. The client’s maladaptive interpretations and conclusions are treated as testable hypotheses. Both behavioural experiments and verbal procedures are used to examine alternative interpretations, generating contradictory evidence that supports more adaptive beliefs. These in turn lead to desired change (Beck & Weishaar, 1995).
 
CBT strategies
 
CBT is based on the idea that the processing of information is crucial for the survival of any organism, but in various psychopathological conditions – such as anxiety disorders, depression, mania, and paranoid states – a systematic bias has been introduced into the client’s information-processing system, causing interpersonal problems and possibly even threatening survival, at least indirectly. Thus, the selective bias of depressed clients leads them into themes of loss and defeat. Those with anxiety selectively and systematically interpret themes of danger, while paranoid clients lean toward attributing abuse or interference, even when there isn’t any. The overall strategies of CBT are, first, collaborative empiricism between therapist and client to explore dysfunctional interpretations and try to modify them. Then guided discovery attempts to discover what threads run through the client’s misperceptions and beliefs; these are linked where possible to analogous experiences of the past, creating a rich tapestry telling the story of the client’s disorder.
 
As clients tune into the nature of the “program” causing their information-processing glitches, a cognitive shift may occur in which clients realise how the data admitted, and the manner of integrating them, determined the behaviour (usually neurotic) which then resulted. The shift involves installing a new “program” which is more adaptive. A person suffering from an anxiety disorder, therefore, may realise that his or her “survival program” was causing selective attention to danger signals. Now, post-shift, attention can be turned to safety signals, with the “program” for “danger signals” being de-activated or at least turned down in “volume”. The shift to the neutral program (i.e., “there are some danger signals and some safety signals”) can be checked in the world. This feedback into the person’s system helps to reverse misinterpretations, catalysing readjustment (Beck & Weishaar, 1995).
 
CBT techniques, cognitive and behavioural
 
In CBT, verbal techniques are used to bring forth the client’s automatic thoughts, analyse the logic behind the thoughts, identify unhelpful assumptions, and examine the validity of the assumptions. Assumptions, once identified, are open to modification, which can occur by asking the client if the assumption seems reasonable, by having the client generate reasons for and against maintaining the assumption, and by presenting evidence contrary to the assumptions. Specific cognitive techniques include the following:
 
Decatastrophising: the “what-if” technique which helps clients prepare for feared consequences. This is helpful in decreasing avoidance.
 
Reattribution: a technique which tests automatic thoughts and assumptions by considering alternative causes of events. This particularly helps when clients perceive themselves as the cause of problem events.
 
Redefining: helps clients mobilise when they believe problems are beyond personal control; these techniques may make problems more concrete, stating them in terms of the client’s own behaviour.
 
Decentring: used chiefly to help clients who erroneously believe that they are the focus of everyone’s (usually negative) attention.
 
Behavioural techniques are also used to modify automatic thoughts and assumptions. These employ behavioural experiments designed to challenge specific maladaptive beliefs and promote new learning. A client might, for example, (1) predict that a certain outcome will obtain, based on automatic thoughts, (2) carry out the agreed behaviour, and then (3) evaluate the evidence in light of the new experience. Some of the chief behavioural techniques used to foster cognitive change are:
 
Homework: opportunities to apply CBT principles between sessions. Assignments typically focus on self-monitoring, structuring time effectively, and implementing procedures for dealing with actual situations.
 
Hypothesis testing: with both cognitive and behavioural components, this technique must make the hypothesis both specific and concrete.
 
Exposure therapy: thoughts, images, bodily symptoms, and levels of tension are experienced by, say, an anxious client. Exposure to the anxiety triggers provides data for the client, who can examine specific thoughts and images for distortions.
 
Behavioural rehearsal and roleplaying: used to practice skills or techniques which are later applied in real life. Role-playing may be taped in order to provide objective feedback with which to assess performance.
 
Diversion techniques: Activities such as social contact, work, play, visual imagery, and physical activity are used to reduce strong emotions and decrease negative thinking.
 
Activity scheduling: provides structure and encourages involvement. By rating, say, the degree of mastery and pleasure of an activity, depressed clients, for example, are able to see that they were not depressed at the same, unvarying level all day. They are able to contradict a belief that they cannot enjoy anything, and are further shown that activity takes some planning, so someone does not come to be an inert “couch potato” due to an inherent defect.
 
Graded task assignment: the client initiates an activity at a “safe” level and the therapist gradually increases the difficulty of assigned tasks (Beck & Weishaar, 1995).
 
Making it work in real life
 
Carrying out a program of CBT in real life presents certain challenges. Confidentiality is maintained, but occasionally audio- or videotaping needs to be conducted, so therapists must gain informed consent from clients. Some therapists give clients their home phone numbers in case of emergency. And therapists also – with client permission – bring significant others into a therapy session to review treatment goals and also to explore ways in which family members and others can assist in achieving them (this is especially true where some significant others may not understand the nature of the client’s disorder and/or are behaving in ways which are counterproductive to the therapy effort). Persons close to an individual can be invaluable in helping with reality testing and encouraging the client to complete the homework assignments.
 
Occasionally problems occur with clients misinterpreting – due to their automatic thoughts – what the therapist has said. Together, therapist and client can elicit these wrongly interpreted statements, looking for alternative interpretations (and if the therapist has made an error, of course, he or she accepts responsibility and corrects it). Nevertheless, problems can arise from unrealistic expectations about how quickly change should occur, from incorrect application of techniques, or – sometimes – from therapist automatic thoughts or logical distortions which prevent maximal effectiveness and problem-solving.
 
Beck and Emery (1979) issued guidelines for working with challenging clients and those who had already experienced “failure” of therapy:
  • Avoid stereotyping the client as being the problem rather than having the problem
  • Remain optimistic
  • Identify and deal with your own dysfunctional cognitions
  • Remain focused on the task instead of blaming the client
  • Maintain a problem-solving attitude
  • Always, the therapist can provide a positive, powerful model for the client, showing that frustration does not necessarily lead to anger and despair (Beck & Weishaar, 1995).
This article was adapted from the Mental Health Academy CPD course “Using CBT with Social Anxiety Disorder”.
 
References:
 
Beck, A., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.J., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN (cloth): 0-89862-0007; ISBN (paperback): 0-89862-919-5.
 
Beck, A. T. & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of anxiety and phobic disorders. Philadelphia: Center for Cognitive Therapy.
 
Beck, A.T. & Weishaar, M.E. (1995). Cognitive Therapy. In Current Psychotherapies, 5th Ed., Corsini, & Wedding, Eds. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc.
 
Gasper, P. (n.d.) Assessment & formulation in CBT. The Marian Centre. Retrieved on 30 June, 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
Grazebrook, K., Garland, A., & the Board of BABCP (British Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies). (2005). What are cognitive and/or behavioural psychotherapies? International Institute for Cognitive Therapy. Retrieved on 25 June, 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
Schmied, V. & Tully, L. (2009). Effective strategies and interventions for adolescents in a child protection context: Literature review. Ashfield, NSW: Centre for Parenting & Research, NSW Department of Community Services. Retrieved on 24 June, 2014, from: hyperlink.
 
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INTOarticles  
 
Motivational Interviewing and Anxiety
 
Motivational interviewing is a therapeutic approach gaining wide popularity in mental health practitioner circles as a respectful, client-centred means of working with clients to help them resolve ambivalence and build resolve: either to make change – the obvious endpoint of most therapy – or to maintain the status quo, if that is determined to be preferable.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
 
Self-help Strategies for OCD and OCPD
 
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) are said to affect two to three percent of the population for OCD (that is: more than 500,000 Australians) and one percent for OCPD, although three to ten percent of the psychiatric population is said to have it (Long, 2011). Many cases probably go untreated. As a therapist, what can you give to obsessive clients and their families to encourage personal initiative toward conquering symptoms? That is the focus of this article.
 
Click here to continue reading this article.
 
More articles: www.aipc.net.au/articles
INTOdevelopment  
 
Mental Health Academy – First to Knowledge in Mental Health
 
Get unrestricted access to over 250 hours of professional development education in mental health, including specialist courses and on-demand videos.
 
Mental Health Academy is Australia’s leading provider of professional development for mental health practitioners. MHA’s all-inclusive memberships give you instant access to over 250 hours of learning – including videos presented by internationally-renowned experts in counselling, psychology and mental health.
 
Topics explored include: Evidence-based therapies, mindfulness, CBT, focused psychological strategies, children & adolescents, relationship counselling, motivational interviewing, depression & anxiety, addictions, trauma, e-therapy, supervision, ethics, plus much more.
 
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Recently released programs:
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  • On Being Effective, Empowering, and Compassionate Therapist
  • Social and Cultural Diversity: Discussing Race
  • Helping Relationships: Creating Measurable Outcomes for Counseling
  • Interviewing the Challenging Client: Scripts and Solutions
  • Conducting a State of the Science Suicide Assessment Interview
  • Effective Interventions for Young Children with Trauma Symptoms
Learn more and join today: www.mentalhealthacademy.com.au/premium
INTOconnection  
 
Have you visited Counselling Connection yet? There are hundreds of interesting posts including case studies, profiles, success stories, videos and much more. Make sure you too get connected (and thank you for those who have already submitted comments and suggestions).
 
Post-disaster Resilience: Who Survives Better?
 
In recent years, many disaster response experts and mental health researchers have switched their focus from looking exclusively at at-risk populations in the aftermath of an emergency to asking, “What are the protective factors?” “What situations, experiences, or personal traits help people to come through a traumatic incident with greater resilience?” First, let’s clear what we mean when we use the word “resilience” in this context.
 
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INTOquotes  
 
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INTOseminars  
 
Many students of the Diploma of Counselling attend seminars to complete the practical requirements of their course. Seminars provide an ideal opportunity to network with other students and liaise with qualified counselling professionals in conjunction with completing compulsory coursework.
 
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